What Are the Different Types of Exercise Bikes?

Upright bike

Getty Images / Simon Skafar

Exercise bikes have existed since the late 19th century, though the first models cannot compare to the sleek, cutting-edge machines we see today. One thing these bikes do share is function. Just as it was back then, cycling today is an enjoyable activity with proven health benefits.

Cycling-specific studies highlight that this form of exercise has a positive impact on our cardiorespiratory function and everyday health, not to mention a risk reduction in ailments including obesity morbidity among both men and women. Cycling is also generally a safe, low-impact sport, making it a suitable form of exercise for individuals living with osteoarthritis.

If that wasn’t enough, a 2019 study also found that as little as 90 minutes of cycling per week has a positive impact on your mental health.

It's therefore not surprising that cycling is popular, both at home and in the gym; so popular that the home exercise bike market is expected to grow 8.7% between 2021 to 2027.

Here, we explain the different types of exercise bikes based on design, function, and user suitability.

The Main Types of Exercise Bikes

There are a number of different exercise bikes on the market, the primary ones being upright, recumbent, and indoor. Each is designed with a distinctive style and offers varying levels of resistance and durability. One similarity is their function as a fit-for-purpose, low-impact workout able to assist individuals to meet their fitness goals.

Upright Bikes

Pros
  • Versatile positioning

  • Full body workout

  • Foldable options for ease of storage

Cons
  • Discomfort on specific body parts, e.g back and neck

  • Seats often uncomfortable

  • Higher position can feel unstable

As the name suggests, upright bikes encourage you to sit in an upright position and are devised for you to switch between a sitting and standing position, much like an outdoor road bike. The pedals are positioned directly under your body with a forward lean position promoted in order to reach the handlebars.

Another key feature is the saddle seat, which is narrow in size, allowing your legs to move without obstruction. The downside is a lack of back support.

A study on stationary bikes found that the rectus femoris muscle presented more activity during upright pedaling compared to other types of cycling. The rectus femoris is one of the four quadricep muscles that flex the thigh at the hip and also helps extend the knee. This muscle plays a vital role in our mobility.

In addition, the positioning of the upright bike seat naturally encourages optimal engagement of other muscle groups, including the core. This is especially true when cycling in a standing position.

And in terms of storage, these bikes are manufactured in various designs with foldable options, for storage in smaller spaces. Some have moving handlebars to work the upper body as you cycle. Most feature an electronic display for tracking your speed, distance, and other key metrics.

Recumbent Bikes

Pros
  • Comfortable and supportive

  • Provides a focused lower body workout

  • Less strain on the joints

Cons
  • One fixed position

  • Less core recruitment

  • Cumbersome

The recumbent bike segment is the fastest-growing on the market, mainly down to its availability, and reduced stress on the lower back, as well as its affordability.

This type of stationary bike is distinctive for its wider seat and reclined position, which offers added support. It is also positioned lower to the ground than other types of bikes, making getting on and off easier. Also, its recline results in less stress on the joints because the pedals are further forward. These bikes often have a TV attached for entertainment while working out, as well as a monitor to display your metrics.

Given the added back support, recumbent bikes are an optimal choice for those new to exercise, or who require added back support. These bikes can also offer a serious cardio and lower body workout, depending on your speed, resistance, and workout time. In fact, a 2016 study found that this type of exercise bike elicited similar muscle activity of the trunk and hip muscles compared to other types of bikes.

Indoor Bikes

Pros
  • Mimics the experience of outdoor cycling

  • Ease of altering resistance

  • Choice of pedals

Cons
  • Saddle can be uncomfortable

  • Poor form can lead to injuries

  • Can lead to burnout

For those who prefer to speed through their workout, indoor bikes are built for fast pedaling and burning calories. Typically referred to as spin bikes (a trademarked name), these powerful machines became popular with the phenomenon of spin classes.

These bikes’ popularity is still on the rise, projected to increase globally by 4.9% between 2019 and 2028. Another key driver of this growth is attributed to innovation, with multiple manufacturers designing luxury indoor bikes, often featuring live steam and on-demand functions for a workout at any time of day.

Indoor bikes are convenient for their built-in resistance knobs that allow you to alter resistance with a simple turn, providing easy control of the bike. In addition, the seats and handlebars are adjustable to fit your stature so you can sit or stand while riding, just as you would on a road bike.

There is also an option to use the pedal, a cage strap, or cleat clip-in shoes, the latter especially useful for those training for longer distance competitions. And, with the presence of a freely rotating flywheel, these bikes are one of the smoothest rides on the market.

Comparison of Upright, Recumbent, and Indoor Bikes

Exercise bikes are available in different designs and with their own set of functions depending on your fitness goals, health, and mobility. While upright, recumbent, and indoor bikes are ideal for a cardio workout, but they are not equally suitable for every cyclist.

The recumbent bike is arguably the most comfortable, given its wide seat and back support, and places the least amount of stress on the joints for a safe workout. However, this machine isolates the lower body without engaging much of the core and can be cumbersome if storing at home.

The upright bike not only brings the core muscles into play but allows you to assume a standing position for an enhanced workout. It also works the rectus femoris, a key quadricep muscle. The downside is added stress on the joints, given the pedals are positioned directly under the body, and the seat, narrow in size, can often become uncomfortable during long rides.

Indoor bikes (spin bikes) are built for speed and a smooth transition between resistances. They are available in many designs, some displaying built-in screens for on-demand workouts. While these bikes may not be suitable for those with mobility and back or joint issues, they are an excellent muscle recruiter and calorie burner. To avoid injury or burnout, it's crucial to set the bike to fit your body's shape and maintain proper form throughout the workout.

A Word From Verywell

When it comes to investing in an exercise bike, there are many factors to consider. Price, size, functionality, and comfort are key for selecting what is best for you. Exercise bikes are an excellent, low-impact, and fun way to engage in physical activity, but it can take a bit of trial and error to select a bike that works for your body.

Was this page helpful?
Article Sources
Verywell Fit uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. Oja P, Titze S, Bauman A, et al. Health benefits of cycling: a systematic review: Cycling and healthScandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 2011;21(4):496-509. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2011.01299.x

  2. Leyland L-A, Spencer B, Beale N, Jones T, van Reekum CM. The effect of cycling on cognitive function and well-being in older adults. Piacentini MF, ed. PLoS ONE. 2019;14(2):e0211779. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0211779

  3. International Sports Science Association. Recumbent Bike Vs. Upright Bike: What's the Difference?

  4. Lopes AD, Alouche SR, Hakansson N, Cohen M. Electromyography during pedaling on upright and recumbent ergometerInt J Sports Phys Ther. 2014;9(1):76-81.

  5. Murdock CJ, Mudreac A, Agyeman K. Anatomy, abdomen and pelvis, rectus femoris muscle. In: StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing; 2021.

  6. Allied Market Research. Home Exercise Market By Type.

  7. Bouillon L, Baker R, Gibson C, Kearney A, Busemeyer T. Comparison of trunk and lower extremity muscle activity among four stationary equipment devices: upright bike, recumbent bike, treadmill, and elliptigo®Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2016;11(2):190-200.

  8. Market.us. Global Indoor Cycling Market By Type.

  9. Research and Markets. Exercise Bike Market: Global Industry Trends, Share, Size, Growth, Opportunity and Forecast 2021-2026