How Severe Weight Loss Really Affects Female Bodybuilding

The Cost of Dieting Down for Fitness Women

Dumbbells on Rack

Getty Images / Larisa Gherghe

When preparing for a female bodybuilding competition, the health implications of reaching extremely low body fat levels and reducing calories to do so is a topic worth examining. Finding reliable information for females who want to lose weight for competitive purposes is challenging. According to expert reviews, studies are lacking, and what’s out there is mainly dated material of poor quality.

A 2017 study in Frontiers in Physiology addresses these concerns. Researchers have taken the time to examine the effects of severe weight loss on active female fitness competitors. They specifically address changes in body composition and hormone function over a three to four-month dieting down period.

Research suggests that dieting during competitive bodybuilding has some positives and some negatives.

  • Dieting led to minimal muscle loss

  • Most people experienced overall fat loss

  • Muscle function was maintained

  • Leptin and estrogen levels normalized during recovery

  • Dieting affected hormone function

  • Testosterone levels dropped

  • Thyroid hormone levels were affected by weight loss

  • Other unknown long-term effects

Research Overview

Recruitment for the study was narrowed to 50 healthy young women who were International Federation of Bodybuilding and Fitness (IFBB) amateur fitness competitors. The volunteers were divided into two groups of 27 women and 23 control participants. The duration of the research was broken down into the following categories typical of contest preparation.

2 Phases of Contest Preparation

  • Dieting down or cutting phase (approximately 20 weeks): The dieting group decreased calories by 30 percent and modified exercise. The control group maintained both nutrient intake and exercise.
  • Recovery phase (approximately 19 weeks): The dieting group increased calories back to original baseline levels. The control group maintained both nutrient intake and exercise.

All women underwent extensive lab work and clinical body scans before and upon completion of the study. Fitness assessment testing included a DXA scan, bioimpedance, skinfolds, blood pressure, and muscle strength measurements.

The competitors had a strong resistance training background and trained in their own programs during the study. The diet group participants followed split routine workouts often used by bodybuilders. Split routines focus on single muscle groups per workout session. Training sessions lasted between 40 and 90 minutes. The participants also practiced posing routines as part of their training.

Aerobic training consisted of either high-intensity interval training (HIIT) or low to medium intensity running/walking. HIIT routines lasted approximately 20 minutes, and lower intensity aerobics typically took 30 to 60 minutes. All participants refrained from HIIT exercise during competition week and used only lower intensity aerobics. The majority of the women preferred separate cardio and resistance training, so they completed two differing workouts daily.

Daily nutrition intake for the control group remained the same, while the people reduced total caloric intake by almost 30 percent. The most considerable reduction was in carbohydrates for the diet group. Before dieting down, the diet participants consumed approximately 215 grams of carbs daily and reduced it to 126 grams daily. This value was increased slightly above baseline (229g daily) during competition week in an attempt to replenish muscle glycogen stores. Adding carbs back into the diet gives the muscle tissue a fuller look as water is returned to dehydrated tissue.

Protein intake was approximately 185 grams per day, and fat consumed was around 53 grams daily during the dieting phase.

Caloric Intake During the Study

According to the study, total energy (caloric) intake for the diet group could be broken down like this:

  • Pre-diet phase: 2244-2400 calories
  • Diet phase: 1700-1800 calories 
  • Recovery phase: 2043-2300 (returning to baseline or pre-diet levels)

Workout intensity and duration remained constant for the control group. However, the diet group implemented varied training intensity or duration depending on the dieting phase. Typically, fitness competitors utilize a tapering-off period during competition week.

Tapering, in this case, refers to the way competitors reduce, alter or eliminate regular workouts to improve the aesthetics and strength of their bodies. The diet group reduced their time resistance training and increased weekly aerobic sessions during the research period.

Research Results

What did researchers find, and how does severe weight loss affect a female fitness competitor or bodybuilder?

Research results indicated the diet group could successfully reduce body fat mass and overall body fat percentage. All participants' body fat percentage returned to baseline or original values during the recovery phase. Body composition was measured using three different methods, and the following was reported for body fat percentage:

  • DXA scan - 23.1 reduced to 12.7 percent (considered the most accurate body composition test)
  • Bioimpedance – 19.7 reduced to 11.6 percent
  • Skinfold calipers – 25.2 reduced to 18.3 percent

According to DXA scan results, another positive finding was diet does not significantly affect lean mass. However, measurements using bioimpedance, skinfolds, and ultrasound did show a slight decrease in muscle mass.

On average, the results found that all competitors had a significant decrease in fat mass and, most of them, a slight reduction to no change in lean muscle.

Participants maintained isometric and explosive leg strength during the diet phase for both groups. However, dieting did show a decrease in strength for bench press compared to the control group.

Hormone function results were not as positive for the dieting women. Blood tests revealed decreased leptin, testosterone, and estradiol for those dieting compared to the control group. Leptin hormone helps regulate energy balance, fat stores, and signals satiety when we eat. Testosterone and estradiol are the primary sex hormones controlling male and female characteristics.

Decreased sex hormones, especially estradiol (estrogen), caused many dieting women in the study to experience menstrual irregularities or amenorrhea (no period). Leptin and estradiol levels returned to normal during the recovery phase, but testosterone remained below normal values. Low testosterone in women can adversely affect sexual health, libido, energy, and mood. 

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels remained in the normal range, but T₃ (triiodothyronine) was decreased for the dieting group. The thyroid gland produces T₃, and low levels may indicate hypothyroidism or starvation. This hormone plays a vital role in regulating body temperature, metabolism, and heart rate.

Researchers indicated T₃ remained low during the recovery phase and suggested a lengthier time of increased caloric intake for the diet group. An increased recovery period would help reduce the risk of long-term hormone changes and imbalance.

Other Health Concerns and Information

Another study examined exercise dependence and muscle dysmorphia in female bodybuilders. Body image issues and dissatisfaction can become a problem in sports like bodybuilding. The drive for body perfection pushes some female and male lifters to develop an obsessive approach to bodybuilding that is psychologically damaging. It appears female competitive bodybuilders are more at risk to develop exercise dependence or muscle dysmorphia compared to women who lift recreationally.

  • Exercise dependence (ED): compulsive cravings for exercise lead to excessive exercise behaviors without potential adverse health consequences.
  • Muscle dysmorphia (MD) is the opposite of anorexia nervosa and is sometimes called bigorexia. A bodybuilder with MD believes they are too thin or underdeveloped when they are actually quite large and muscular.

Other research indicated disordered eating could become a problem for athletes participating in lean build sports. Female bodybuilders and fitness competitors are at higher risk of introducing restrictive and disordered eating behaviors. This is partly due to improper or no nutritional guidance from experts. Working with a registered dietitian (RD) specializing in sports nutrition is advised to help athletes implement proper and safe training methods.

Another study indicated prolonged extreme dieting is often associated with unhealthy body fat levels, decreased muscle mass, and decreased bone density. It was suggested recovering from undernutrition could be slow and difficult.

Further studies are recommended to gain more conclusive information on the effects of diet and recovery on normal-weight active females. Since competitive fitness women typically enter multiple competitions, more research on repetitive extreme dieting and long-term adverse health effects are needed.

Research Summary and Takeaway

Females preparing for fitness and bodybuilding competitions want to lose fat weight and maintain muscle. This research has indicated some positives and negatives to severe weight loss trying to accomplish these goals. The following bullet points are valuable takeaways:

  • Lean muscle was minimally decreased overall in most women dieting for competition.
  • All dieting participants achieved a significant decrease in fat mass.
  • Muscle function and strength were well preserved during the diet phase.
  • Hormone function was adversely affected by diet and severe weight/fat loss.
  • Leptin hormone levels returned to normal values in all women during the recovery phase.
  • Estradiol (estrogen) returned to normal levels in all women during the recovery phase.
  • Testosterone levels remained at below normal values even during the recovery phase. 
  • Women should continue a more prolonged recovery phase with increased calories until T₃ hormone and testosterone return to normal levels.

A Word From Verywell

The sport of female bodybuilding and competitive fitness continues to grow in popularity. Many women are ready to take fitness to the next level and want to be well-informed on the subject. You may be prepared to take this step but feel uneasy about the dieting process and possible health consequences.

The positive research findings show people can lose some fat and maintain muscle mass, but at the cost of hormonal imbalances with unknown long-term implications (and potentially a loss of muscle strength). As a female bodybuilder or fitness competitor, staying up-to-date with the research will be essential. Before choosing to start training for competitive fitness or bodybuilding, consulting with a registered sports nutrition specialist may also be beneficial.

6 Sources
Verywell Fit uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. Hulmi JJ, et al., The effects of intensive weight reduction on body composition and serum hormones in female fitness competitors, Frontiers in Physiology, 2017

  2. Manore MM, Weight management for athletes and active individuals: A Brief Review, Journal of Sports Medicine, 2015

  3. Tod D, Edwards C, Cranswick I. Muscle dysmorphia: current insightsPsychol Res Behav Manag. 2016;9:179–188. doi:10.2147/PRBM.S97404

  4. Mancine, R.P., Gusfa, D.W., Moshrefi, A. et al. Prevalence of disordered eating in athletes categorized by emphasis on leanness and activity type – a systematic reviewJ Eat Disord 8, 47 (2020). doi:10.1186/s40337-020-00323-2

  5. Chaba L, D’Arripe-Longueville F, Scoffier-Mériaux S, Lentillon-Kaestner V. Investigation of eating and deviant behaviors in bodybuilders according to their competitive engagement. Deviant Behavior. 2019;40(6):655-671.

  6. Spendlove J, Mitchell L, Gifford J, et al. Dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. Sports Med. 2015;45(7):1041-1063.

By Darla Leal
Darla Leal is a Master Fitness Trainer, freelance writer, and the creator of Stay Healthy Fitness, where she embraces a "fit-over-55" lifestyle.