Bodyweight Exercises for Developing Fitness and Strength

Man doing a pull up in the park
PeopleImages/Getty Images

Bodyweight exercises are those that require no equipment at all: No dumbbells, barbells, or gym machines. Using bodyweight was one of the original forms of strength training.

Bodyweight training is easy to learn, effective, and can be done pretty much anywhere—at home, at work or while traveling.

Although you can get quite inventive when it comes to bodyweight exercises, the following 10 bodyweight exercises are great ways to work for all the major muscle groups. Many, like the squat, are compound exercises that work more than one muscle group.

What Are Bodyweight Exercises?

It may seem obvious to seasoned gym trainers or athletes, but many forms of resistance and related exercise regimens at times utilize an individual's own body weight.

Yoga, Pilates, calisthenics, and plyometrics all use bodyweight to enhance strength, muscle, flexibility, and fitness at some level.

These bodyweight exercises use a strength and resistance training model of concentric, eccentric and isometric exercise to achieve fitness and strength targets. They form the core of the bodyweight workout program. Many other variations and modifications are also possible.

The Push-Up

The push-up is a classic bodyweight exercise, and it demonstrates quite clearly the principle of bodyweight resistance training. While facing the floor and propped up on hands and toes, push the body to and from the floor.

One "up-and-down" is one push-up repetition. Don't go too fast or too slow. Keep the head and neck steady. Do as many as you can in one minute; rest, then try again. Rest your knees on the ground if you find the exercise difficult when you first start out.

The Squat

The squat without weights may seem easy, but once you get up to around the 15-rep mark it starts to take a toll on the knees, upper legs, and butt until you build up some initial strength. The squat develops legs and butt muscles and, over time, may strengthen knee joints.

Be cautious with squats if you have an existing knee injury or feel knee pain at any stage during the workout.

The Lunge

The lunge is a fundamental bodyweight exercise. Done in sets of eight or more (per leg), lunges provide strength, balance, and flexibility training.

Options include a variety of arm positions for the lunge: at the sides, straight out in front, raised on each side, crossed at the chest, or straight up overhead.

For example, lunging with arms raised at the sides provides better balance and stability than arms crossed at the chest.

Other more advanced options include the backward lunge and the 45-degree angle side lunge.

The Crunch

Crunches are a popular exercise for strengthening the abdominal muscles. Many different types of crunches exist. Some of the best include:

  • Standard crunch, in which the shoulders are raised off the floor while you contract the abs.
  • Reverse crunch, in which the legs and knees are raised off the floor while you contract the abs.
  • Combo crunch, which is a combination of both of the above.
  • Bicycle crunch, which includes all of the above and you pedal your legs in the air.

The Dip

Dips are performed with a chair or bench. You push up from a chair with arms behind and legs out front.

For bench dips, start out with the legs bent at about 90 degrees and your feet more or less flat on the floor. As you get stronger, you will be able to extend your legs fully during your dips.

Another advanced bodyweight core exercise that also uses the bench is the dragon flag.

The Pull-Up and Chin-Up

These exercises are variations of the one movement in which you haul yourself up off the ground so that your face is more or less level with a high bar.

Pull-ups and chin-ups are difficult exercises for many. Although pull-ups or chin-ups are good examples of bodyweight exercises, you may not have access to a pull-up bar at home.

Most gyms have a pull-up bar, but if you're working out at home you can improvise with a beam or bar meant for other things—just be sure it's solid and secure.

The Wall Sit

Stand against a wall and slowly bend the knees while supporting your back with the wall. Hold the position with your thighs parallel to the floor for 10 seconds, then return to the standing position.

The Wall Push

Stand facing a solid wall, raise your arms and push hard against the wall for 10 seconds. Relax and repeat three times. This is an isometric exercise.

The Bridge

To perform the bridge exercise, lie face up on the ground with knees bent and feet flat. Lift your hips off the ground as high as you can, squeezing your glutes at the top.

The Chair Stand

Sit on a chair that is braced against a wall. Sit and stand 10 times, then rest. Do three sets.

A Word From Verywell

These 10 bodyweight exercises will build good strength in a fitness program. You can do most of them at just about any time and any place, and additional equipment is not necessary.

For complete fitness, add in some running, fast walking, or interval training.

By Paul Rogers
Paul Rogers is a personal trainer with experience in a wide range of sports, including track, triathlon, marathon, hockey, tennis, and baseball.