The Health Benefits of Pyruvate

Uses, dosing guidelines, and preparations

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

 JUAN GARTNER / Getty Images

Table of Contents
View All
Table of Contents

Pyruvate is a substance that is made by the body when it metabolizes sugar (glucose). Your body makes all of the pyruvate that it needs, but you can also consume pyruvate in food such as an apple (450 mg) or beer and red wine (75 mg). Some people also take a pyruvate supplement to gain certain health and body benefits.

Health Benefits

The most popular purported health benefit of pyruvate is weight loss. Pyruvate supplements for increased fat metabolism are sold online and in vitamin shops. But there is no conclusive evidence to support this benefit.

One limited study demonstrated a small effect on body composition when test subjects consumed 6 grams of pyruvate for six weeks and participated in a program of mild physical activity.

However, a literature review conducted in 2014 concluded that there is not enough evidence to support the use of pyruvate supplements for weight loss. The authors also note that there is not enough information about the safety of the supplements.

According to the National Institutes of Health, even though pyruvate supplements claim to help boost fat and calorie metabolism, few high-quality studies have been able to support these benefits.

Other Benefits

In addition to weight loss, some people seek other benefits from pyruvate and pyruvate supplements. The compound may be used for:

  • High cholesterol
  • Cataracts
  • Cancer
  • Improving athletic performance
  • Alcohol-related liver disease
  • COPD
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Coronary artery bypass surgery

More evidence is needed to confirm any of these pyruvate benefits in humans.

Some people also use pyruvate for cosmetic purposes. Applied to the skin or as a facial peel, some believe that it can relieve dryness or reduce wrinkles and other signs of aging. One small study demonstrated that pyruvic acid peels may be modestly effective for managing aging skin.

Lastly, authors of a study performed on mice concluded that pyruvate supplementation may counteract aging-related behavioral impairment, but did not provide direct memory enhancement. Further studies are needed to investigate this potential benefit in humans.

Possible Side Effects

Pyruvate is possibly safe when taken by mouth in supplement form. However, side effects may include diarrhea, gas, bloating, and (possibly) decreased HDL levels, according to the NIH.

However, health experts caution that women who are pregnant or breastfeeding or those who have irritable bowel syndrome may want to avoid pyruvate. Also if you have diarrhea, pyruvate may make it worse.

Dosage and Preparation

Pyruvate supplements are available in different amounts primarily in capsule form. Doses in amounts of 5 to 44 grams daily have been used in combination with diet and exercise for weight loss. One study investigating the cholesterol-lowering potential of pyruvate provided study participants with 36 to 53 grams of pyruvate per day.

No specific guideline for pyruvate dosing is provided. According to the National Institutes of Health, few safety concerns have been reported for up to 30 grams per day for as long as six weeks. They note however that appropriate doses have not been but not well studied.

What to Look For

When buying any dietary supplement, it is important to read ingredient information carefully before making a purchase.

A supplement product may contain more than just the ingredient that you are looking for. And even if a label says that it is "natural," that doesn't necessarily mean that it is safe.

Since dietary supplements can interfere with other medication and certain medical conditions, it's important to talk to your healthcare provider before choosing to take one. The National Institutes of Health provides a tip sheet for consumers who are interested in taking dietary supplements.

Was this page helpful?
Article Sources
Verywell Fit uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  • Pyruvate. Professional Monograph. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. 11/5/2017.

  • Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss. Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements.

  • Gheresitich I, Brazzini B, Perris K, et al. Pyruvic acid peels for the treatment of photoaging. Dermatol Surg 2004;30:32-6. DOI: 10.1111/j.1524-4725.2004.30002.x.

  • Gray, L. R., Tompkins, S. C., & Taylor, E. B. (2013). Regulation of pyruvate metabolism and human disease. Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS71(14), 2577-604. DOI: 10.1007/s00018-013-1539-2.

  • Kalman, D., Colker, C. M., Wilets, I., Roufs, J. B., & Antonio, J. (1999). The effects of pyruvate supplementation on body composition in overweight individuals. Nutrition, 15(5), 337–340. DOI: 10.1016/s0899-9007(99)00034-9.

  • Koivisto, H., Leinonen, H., Puurula, M., Hafez, H. S., Barrera, G. A., Stridh, M. H., Waagepetersen, H. S., Tiainen, M., Soininen, P., Zilberter, Y., … Tanila, H. (2016). Chronic Pyruvate Supplementation Increases Exploratory Activity and Brain Energy Reserves in Young and Middle-Aged Mice. Frontiers in aging neuroscience8, 41. DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2016.00041.

  • Onakpoya, I., Hunt, K., Wider, B., & Ernst, E. (2013). Pyruvate Supplementation for Weight Loss: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 54(1), 17–23. DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2011.565890.

  • Stanko, R. T., Reynolds, H. R., Lonchar, K. D., and Arch, J. E. Plasma lipid concentrations in hyperlipidemic patients consuming a high-fat diet supplemented with pyruvate for 6 wk. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;56(5):950-954. DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/56.5.950.