Can You Eat Rye on a Gluten-Free Diet?

Rye is a gluten grain, but gluten-free mock rye bread is safe

rye bread on a plate

Verywell / Alexandra Shytsman

Rye is a gluten containing grain from the wheat tribe and is related to wheat and barley. Rye grain is processed to make flour, breads, beer, crispbread, types of whiskey and vodka, and is used to feed livestock. It is high in iron, B vitamins, folate, selenium, iron, and zinc.

Is Rye Bread Gluten-Free?

Rye bread is not gluten-free. Rye is one of the three gluten grains. It contains a protein called secalin, which is a form of gluten. Therefore, any food containing rye as an ingredient (whiskey made from rye counts) is not safe on the gluten-free diet. Additionally, triticale, which is generally used to make light rye bread, also contains gluten and needs to be avoided on a gluten-free diet.

Rye in Baked Goods

Although rye often is used in bread in Europe, especially in Germany and in eastern European countries, rye flour is not commonly used in the United States as an ingredient in baked goods.

However, it is common in the United States, in Germany and in Eastern European countries to use rye flour in bread with caraway seeds, and in pumpernickel bread. In addition, crackers and crispbreads frequently contain rye. All of these products are off-limits for someone with celiac disease or non-celiac gluten sensitivity.

Rye flour is denser than wheat flour and leads to a heavier bread. Because of this, rye flour often is combined with wheat flour in baked goods. This lends the baked goods the taste of rye (which is more distinctive than wheat) but doesn't make them so heavy that they are unpalatable.

Overall, rye has less gluten than wheat. However, because it is still a gluten grain, it is not safe for people with celiac disease or non-celiac gluten sensitivity.

Identifying Rye on Food Labels

Food labeling laws require food manufacturers to disclose ingredients on food labels, but not all allergens. For example, food labeling laws do not require disclosure of gluten on labels. And rye does not have to be identified as an allergen because it is not included in the top eight allergens.

However, if rye is in the food it is required by the FDA to be listed as an ingredient on the label.

In practice, manufacturers generally will want you to know that there's rye flour or rye grain in a product, since it's considered to be a premium ingredient, and it makes the product (usually bread or crackers) more desirable.

If you see mention of rye (or its Latin name, secale) on a label, you should steer clear of that product. In addition, triticale is a hybrid of rye and wheat. It also contains gluten, so avoid any products containing triticale, along with any containing wheat or rye.

Gluten-Free 'Rye' Bread Options

For those who crave that dark bread taste and texture, some gluten-free manufacturers make gluten-free "rye" bread. For example, Three Bakers offers a gluten-free rye-style bread, and Canyon Bakehouse Gluten-Free makes Deli Rye-Style bread, a gluten-free sourdough mock rye bread.

Both these brands have very stringent standards for gluten cross-contamination. Their products are tested to make certain they include fewer than 5 parts per million of gluten. You can find both products online and in the gluten-free freezer sections at select grocery stores nationwide.

Rye Whiskey: Gluten-Free or Not?

Now, back to questioning whether rye whiskey is gluten-free or not. Here, experts differ in their opinions on whether people who have celiac or gluten sensitivity can consume rye whiskey without a reaction.

Rye whiskey is made from rye grain—in fact, in the U.S., the mash to be distilled must start out life as at least 51% rye to qualify as "rye whiskey." Often, the mash used to make rye whiskey also includes wheat and/or barley, the other two gluten-containing grains.

Since rye whiskey is distilled, many celiac disease associations consider it to be gluten-free; the distillation process theoretically breaks down and removes the proteins that cause reactions.

Many people with celiac or gluten sensitivity report that they can drink distilled gluten grain-based alcoholic beverages without any problem. However, others with celiac disease or gluten senstivity cannot tolerate it.

Also, it's impossible to know if the whiskey was contaminated during processing or by other ingredients, such as caramel color that contains malt, without calling the distillery directly. When in doubt, you should contact the manufacturers to be certain what you are consuming.

A Word From Verywell

Since rye is one of the three gluten grains, everyone with celiac disease or non-celiac gluten sensitivity should avoid rye bread and crackers and anything that contains triticale, which is a cross between rye and wheat. Also, those with celiac or gluten sensitivity should tread carefully when trying rye whiskey, since some people do react.

7 Sources
Verywell Fit uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
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  2. Lebwohl B, Cao Y, Zong G, et al. Long term gluten consumption in adults without celiac disease and risk of coronary heart disease: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2017;357:j1892. doi:10.1136/bmj.j1892

  3. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Questions and answers on the gluten-free food labeling final rule.

  4. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Food Allergen Labeling And Consumer Protection Act of 2004 Questions and Answers.

  5. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Overview of Food Ingredients, Additives & Colors.

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  7. National Celiac Association. Is alcohol made from grain safe for celiacs?.  

Additional Reading

By Jane Anderson
Jane Anderson is a medical journalist and an expert in celiac disease, gluten sensitivity, and the gluten-free diet.