Human Growth Hormone Use in Weight Training and Bodybuilding

A Banned Doping Substance With Dubious Efficacy and Safety

Bodybuilder doing a dumbbell curl
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Human Growth Hormone (HGH) is a naturally occurring hormone that is essential to human growth and the development of bodily structures. Some people produce an abnormal amount of HGH and this can cause conditions such as gigantism and acromegaly caused by an overgrowth of certain tissues.

Children with gigantism can grow exceptionally tall, in rare cases over 7 and even 8 feet tall — but they are plagued with numerous musculoskeletal and medical problems.

HGH is used medically to stimulate growth in people who lack this hormone or, in some cases, to help those recovering from a serious illness.

Human Growth Hormone for Bodybuilding

Human growth hormone (HGH) is associated with increased fat loss and enhanced cosmetic muscle growth. Bodybuilders may inject human growth hormone to achieve a more muscular appearance. However, most of the increase in muscle mass is actually due to fluid retention, not actual muscle growth. There are also risks associated with the use of human growth hormone.

Because of a perceived advantage to muscle growth and strength, bodybuilders and athletes who are tempted to take performance-enhancing drugs and supplements like steroids have taken HGH in order to gain an athletic advantage, or for rapid, cosmetic muscle growth.

Because HGH taken orally can be broken down by digestion, HGH is injected when used as a supplement drug. HGH is also promoted as an agent for rejuvenation for aging people who want to look and perform younger.

Side Effects

The following side-effects of injected HGH have been reported:

  • Muscle or joint pain
  • Suppression of pituitary/hypothalamus gland function
  • Swelling of body tissues (edema)
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome (wrist nerve pain)
  • Elevated blood glucose levels

Expert Assessment

The National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) in its 2009 review, concluded this about HGH:

"Human growth hormone increases lean body mass within weeks of administration; however, the majority of the change is within the water compartment and not in body cell mass. Human growth hormone is unlikely to be administered as a single agent but often in combination with androgens. Combined administration of hGH and resistance training is associated with minimal gains in lean body mass, muscle size, and maximal voluntary strength in men compared with resistance exercise alone."

Another reviewer (Liu) said this:

"Claims regarding the performance-enhancing properties of growth hormone are premature and are not supported by our review of the literature. The limited published data evaluating the effects of growth hormone on athletic performance suggest that although growth hormone increases lean body mass in the short term, it does not appear to improve strength and may worsen exercise capacity. In addition, growth hormone in the healthy young is frequently associated with adverse events."


Only one consistently positive effect of HGH use is highlighted in recent studies, and that is the enhancement of lean body mass, in other words, fat loss. This works because HGH promotes enzymes called lipases that break fat down and provide preferential burning of fat.

Although it may promote the growth of collagen tissues like tendon, ligament, and bone, for the bodybuilder or athlete looking for strength advantage, HGH has little to offer because any muscle enlargement is due to fluid retention. In addition, adverse effects can be significant.

A Word From Verywell

HGH does not appear to improve athletic performance significantly in a range of studies and provides minimal strength advantage. A few single studies have shown some increase in sprint performance in amateur athletes. Edema (swelling of tissue) may be a limiting factor.

Human Growth Hormone is banned in most countries under the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) protocols.

8 Sources
Verywell Fit uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. Bello MO, Garla VV. Gigantism And Acromegaly. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Jan-. 

  2. Brinkman JE, Sharma S. Physiology, Growth Hormone. [Updated 2019 Mar 14]. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Jan-. 

  3. Erotokritou-mulligan I, Holt RI, Sönksen PH. Growth hormone doping: a review. Open Access J Sports Med. 2011;2:99-111. doi:10.2147/OAJSM.S11626

  4. Bartke A. Growth Hormone and Aging: Updated Review. World J Mens Health. 2019;37(1):19-30. doi:10.5534/wjmh.180018

  5. Divall SA, Radovick S. Growth Hormone and Treatment Controversy: Long Term Safety of rGH. Curr Pediatr Rep. 2013;1(2):128-132. doi:10.1007/s40124-013-0009-5

  6. Hoffman J, Kraemer W, Bhasin S, et al. Position Stand on Androgen and Human Growth Hormone Use. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.

  7. Liu H, Bravata DM, Olkin I, et al. Systematic Review: The Effects of Growth Hormone on Athletic Performance. Annals of Internal Medicine.

  8. Hughes D. The World Anti-Doping Code in sport: Update for 2015. Aust Prescr. 2015;38(5):167-70.

Additional Reading

By Paul Rogers
Paul Rogers is a personal trainer with experience in a wide range of sports, including track, triathlon, marathon, hockey, tennis, and baseball.