How Often Should You Eat?

What to Do If You're Eating Less But Gaining Weight

Breakfast with pancakes and hot chocolate
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If you read headlines about healthy eating or weight loss, you've probably noticed that many popular diet plans include periods of fasting. But others encourage you to eat every few hours to avoid starvation mode. So how often should you eat? And if weight loss is your goal, what happens if you are eating less but gaining weight?

To sort through the headlines, it's smart to turn to health and medical experts. Dr. Joel Fuhrman is a six-time New York Times best-selling author and President of the Nutritional Research Foundation. His beliefs about how often you should eat to lose weight are consistent with what researchers and scientists have known about metabolism for years. And what some dieters get wrong.

How Often Should You Eat?

Do you eat every few hours to avoid a condition called "starvation mode?" If you do, you're not alone. Many dieters snack throughout the day as part of their weight loss routine. But eating too often can be problematic as well, and it may cause your weight loss plan to fail.

When dieters talk about starvation mode, they are usually referring to the effect that infrequent eating can have on your metabolism. The commonly held belief is that if you don't eat every three hours or if you skip a meal—like breakfast—your metabolism immediately slows to preserve energy and prepare for starvation. As a result, weight loss grinds to a halt and weight gain can occur.

Some science-savvy dieters might also confuse starvation mode with what researchers call "adaptive thermogenesis."  Scientific studies have confirmed that people who have successfully lost weight have a slower metabolism than their same-weight counterparts who have never dieted. These people often (reasonably) complain that they are eating less but gaining weight. 

Researchers believe that the slower metabolism is an adaptation to eating fewer calories over an extended period of time.  Adaptive thermogenesis makes it harder for people who have lost weight to maintain a healthy weight.

So why is the distinction between starvation mode and adaptive thermogenesis so important?  Because even though the concept of adaptive thermogenesis has been validated in clinical studies, researchers don't necessarily blame infrequent eating or skipped meals (starvation mode) for the slower metabolism. So dieters shouldn't necessarily use the evidence-based concept of adaptive thermogenesis to justify eating more often.  

I'm Eating Less But Gaining Weight—Is Starvation Mode to Blame?

So can you gain weight without eating all the time? Dr. Fuhrman explains that eating less can have an effect on your metabolism, but not in the way that we think.  In fact, he thinks that the idea of starvation mode is "ridiculous." 

"Caloric restriction can have an effect on metabolic rate but on the rate at which you lose weight, not on whether or not you lose weight," he says.  Fuhrman says emphatically that dieters will not gain weight by restricting calories. "If starvation mode was a real thing," he says, "then anorexics would be fat."

In short, Fuhrman says that dieters should never try to eat more to avoid starvation mode. Snacking frequently or increasing the number of meals you eat during the day doesn't work if you want to lose weight. "When people increase the number of eating occasions during the day, they increase body weight," says Fuhrman

How Often Should You Eat? The Bottom Line

So what really matters if you want to lose weight?  Fuhrman believes that the quality of your diet—not eating frequency—makes the difference. In his book, The End of Dieting, he offers a scientific explanation for why we want to eat all the time. 

He explains that what feels like hunger is often just our body's natural response to withdrawal from junk food.  "People get uncomfortable, that's all it is." He says that weight loss happens when we increase the amount of healthy food we consume, not the frequency of eating episodes. Eating higher quality foods helps us to find an eating schedule that allows you to reach and maintain a healthy weight. 

A Word From Verywell

If you're eating less but still gaining weight, examine the quality of your diet. Choosing nutritious, high-fiber, high-protein foods will help you to feel full longer so you don't want eat as often. But calorie count matters, as well. If you're eating less, but eating foods that are high in calories (even if those foods are healthy) you'll have a hard time reaching your goal. Check your total daily calorie needs and try to stay within a hundred calories of that target. If weight gain continues, check in with your health care provider to make sure that a medical condition or medication isn't causing you to gain weight.

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