How to Do Half Forward Bend (Ardha Uttanasana) in Yoga

Proper Form, Variations, and Common Mistakes

Also Known As: Standing half forward bend, flat back

Targets: Hamstrings, calves, torso

Level: Beginner

In yoga, Ardha Uttanasana doesn't usually stand on its own. If you're familiar to yoga practice, you already know the pose as part of the Sun Salutation sequence where it serves as the transition between Uttanasana and Chaturanga Dandasana. But the pose has unique benefits of its own and can be part of other sequences as you advance your yoga practice.

If you're working on jumping back to Chaturanga as part of your Sun Salutation, Ardha Uttanasana will be pretty important. The pose gets your upper body in the correct position to flow seamlessly from one position to the next.


In Sanskrit, Ardha Uttanasana means "intense half stretch pose." The pose certainly gives your hamstrings a great stretch, but it also encourages good spinal alignment. Forward bends also stimulate your abdominal organs and promote good digestion.

This pose gives you a great opportunity to practice your yoga breathing, increase your focus, and calm your mind. It's also a great way to build up strength and flexibility you'll need for advanced yoga poses and sequences.

As you continue your yoga practice, flat back is a core position you'll come back to often, as it's a fundamental transition pose in the Sun Salutation sequence.

Step-by-Step Instructions

  1. While in Uttanasana, take a few deep breaths. When you're ready, come up onto your fingertips.
  2. As you inhale, raise your torso, keeping your spine flat.
  3. Exhale smoothly as you draw your shoulder blades together. Pay attention to your knees here and try to microbend to avoid locking them.
  4. Inhale as you lift your head and look forward. Keep your spine aligned through your back and neck (it can help to imagine being pulled forward slightly from your chest).
  5. Take this opportunity to get in touch with your breathing. Focus on inhaling and exhaling deeply, coordinating each breath with the flow of the movement.
  6. When you're ready to release from the pose, exhale and return to Uttanasana.

If you are mid-Sun Salutation and are using this as a transition, step back to a lunge or flatten your palms to the floor in preparation for your jump back to Chaturanga. Your hands need to be flat on the ground. Bend your knees as much as necessary to make this happen before you attempt to jump back.

Common Mistakes

Your Back Isn't Flat

If you're having trouble keeping your back flat as you bend—either because you're still new to the technique or you're lacking strength—try using a wall to help get a sense of what a flat back feels like:

  1. Stand in front of a wall with your hands out in front of you.
  2. Place your palms flat against the wall.
  3. Move your hands up the wall until your spine is long and your back flat.

Try to commit the feeling to memory. Then, as you begin your yoga practice, remember how it felt to have your back flat as you bend forward.

You're Bending at the Waist

As you bend forward in Ardha Uttanasana, make sure you're bending from the hips rather than your waist. Try placing your hands on your hip bones as you practice.

You're Leaning Back

As you bend forward, you want your ankles, knees, and hips to stay aligned. If you fall out of form, you'll end up putting too much weight on your heels. Practicing the pose against the wall can also help you get a sense of what the proper distribution of weight should feel like.

Modifications and Variations

Need a Modification?

Bending your knees can help if you lack flexibility or find that you're not able to hold the pose during your practice. This modification can be especially helpful if your lower back is tight. Placing a folded blanket under your toes before you bend is a great way to further improve flexibility and more easily deepen the stretch in your hamstrings.

If you find you need help keeping your balance, you can brace your hands on your shins (not your knees), or touch the floor or a yoga block in front of you.

When recovering from an injury or surgery involving the back or neck, try bracing your hands on a chair in front of you to make the forward bend easier (as long as your doctor has cleared you to resume exercise, of course).

Up for a Challenge?

To further deepen your Uttanasana, try going from flat back to a full forward fold. As you inhale, come up to a flat back with the spine long. As you exhale, forward fold deeply over your legs. Move back and forth on the breath for five to 10 breaths.

Safety and Precautions

As always, it's best to check with your doctor before starting any new exercise class, workout, or yoga routine. In general, the half forward bend is relaxing pose most people can do safely as long as they are using good form. However, people with certain conditions should be mindful throughout their yoga practice.

  • If you're pregnant, you may need to stand with your legs wider apart to avoid compressing your belly. Don't fold deeper than is comfortable. In later stages of pregnancy, don't be afraid to skip the pose if it's not comfortable for you.
  • If you have sciatica or other lower back problems, try turning your toes in to make the pose more comfortable.
  • If you have balance problems or are prone to falls, use assistance (such as a chair, wall, or the physical support of another person) to prevent injury.
  • If you have an injury or are recovering from surgery involving your neck, forward bends with a straight back can usually be done as long as you don't lift your face to look forward.

Try It Out

While you can certainly benefit from using the Ardha Uttanasana pose on its own, flat back is even better when part of a yoga sequence or paired with other poses.

Try it as part of the classic Sun Salutation series mentioned above:

And also consider:

By Ann Pizer, RYT
Ann Pizer is a writer and registered yoga instructor who teaches vinyasa/flow and prenatal yoga classes.