Does Wheat-Free Mean the Same As Gluten-Free?

sign advertising 'no wheat'
Spelt is wheat-free but NOT gluten-free. John Carey/Getty Images

Many people believe the term "wheat-free" is interchangeable with the term "gluten-free." Unfortunately, that's not the case. In fact, in many cases foods labeled as "wheat-free" contain some gluten. It's also possible for foods that are labeled "gluten-free" to contain wheat-based ingredients, such as wheat starch.

Gluten and Wheat Are Not the Same

Gluten is found in wheat, and many people think of "gluten" as coming only from wheat. That's where the confusion comes in—people see the phrase "wheat-free" and assume the food is also gluten-free.

That's a good way to get glutened, since variants of the gluten protein also come from the grains barley and rye. A food labeled as "wheat-free" still can contain either of those grains or ingredients made from them. Barley and rye are not used as often in foods as wheat is, but they're still common enough to pose a potential problem for someone following the gluten-free diet.

Think about it this way: numerous mainstream beers contain no wheat but are made from barley. And there's no question that mainstream beer is not safe for those with celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity.

Of course, most people who have been following the gluten-free diet for a while also realize that beer contains gluten. But when we see a box of cookies or some sort of ready-made food product labeled "wheat-free," it's easy to get confused.

Wheat Allergy vs. Celiac Disease

The problem is the way food labeling laws in the United States are crafted. Laws in other countries differ; in Canada, for example, gluten must be disclosed.

The U.S. food labeling laws are aimed at so-called "true" allergies (not "gluten allergy," which in most cases is something different). True allergies, if severe enough, can be immediately life-threatening, which is why the law targets them. Wheat allergy is a true allergy, while celiac disease and gluten sensitivity are not true allergies.

Celiac disease and gluten sensitivity obviously can be serious conditions if left untreated. But neither condition will result in immediate death if you are accidentally exposed to gluten.

Wheat can cause a major, sudden allergic reaction if you suffer from wheat allergy. That's why labeling laws in the U.S. require manufacturers to disclose wheat in products—it's considered one of the "big eight" allergens, which also include milk, soy, egg, peanut, tree nut, fish and shellfish.

Since wheat is included in the U.S. food labeling law but gluten is not, food manufacturers don't have to specifically disclose barley or rye ingredients in their ingredient lists.

In other countries, labeling differs and food manufacturers follow those guidelines. For example, it's not uncommon in the United Kingdom to find foods labeled "gluten-free" that are made with wheat starch, which in its purest form does not contain gluten. But food made with wheat starch isn't safe for those with wheat allergy.

When to Worry About Labels

Barley is the most common hidden gluten grain, as it can masquerade as sweetener, malt or "natural flavor." So a product labeled "wheat-free" but not "gluten-free" could contain hidden barley.

In other cases, the barley may not be hidden, but it's only apparent if you scan the ingredients list. Some manufacturers specifically call out non-gluten-free ingredients in these lists. Newman's Own, for example, markets wheat-free, dairy-free sandwich cookies that contain barley flour, and the brand lists "organic barley flour" as the cookies' second ingredient and states that it is "not a gluten-free product."

Sometimes spelt—a form of wheat that's considered to have less gluten, but is definitely not gluten-free —also is marketed as "wheat-free." This may occur in some bakeries, health food stores, and farmers' markets.

It's also possible to have a product labeled "gluten-free" that contains wheat-based ingredients. Several brands in the U.S. and Europe are experimenting with using wheat starch to improve the texture of their commercial gluten-free baked goods. These wheat-starch-containing foods would not be safe for someone with a true wheat allergy, but they might be okay for someone who avoids gluten.

A food labeled "wheat-free" that contains gluten ingredients would be safe for someone with a wheat allergy to consume, but not for someone with celiac or gluten sensitivity.

A Word from Verywell

If you have celiac disease or gluten sensitivity, be very careful of products labeled "wheat-free" but not "gluten-free," since the terms are not interchangeable. And if you have a true wheat allergy, be aware of the growing trend for "gluten-free" labeled products to include wheat-derived ingredients in their ingredients. Don't assume that a food labeled "gluten-free" also is wheat-free, since this is not always the case.

12 Sources
Verywell Fit uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
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Additional Reading

By Jane Anderson
Jane Anderson is a medical journalist and an expert in celiac disease, gluten sensitivity, and the gluten-free diet.