Common Running Pain and Injuries

You've got to break down before you can build up
Common running injuries. Yuri_Arcurs / Getty Images

Running is one of the easiest ways to stay fit, but it is also one of the easiest ways to develop an injury. Running aches, pains, and injuries are all too common, especially for those new to running.

However, even seasoned runners can wind up with injuries to the hips, knees, ankles, and feet. The impact and stress of running can be hard on the muscles and joints, particularly if running is your only sport.

Common Injuries

If you do develop an ache or pain, it is likely to be one of the following.

Ankle Sprains

Ankle sprains are the most common ankle injury. It occurs when there is a stretching and tearing of ligaments surrounding the ankle joint.

Achilles Tendinitis 

Achilles tendinitis is a chronic injury in runners that occurs primarily from overuse. It is felt as pain in the back of the ankle. If this is ignored it may increase your risk of Achilles tendon rupture.


Runners often develop foot blisters, fluid-filled sacs on the surface of the skin.

Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS)

DOMS is muscle pain, stiffness, or soreness that occurs 24 to 48 hours after particularly intense exercise.

Groin Pull 

A groin (adductor) pull or strain occurs when the muscles of the inner thigh are stretched beyond their limits.

Heel Spur 

A heel spur is a growth of bone at the bottom of the heel where muscles and other soft tissue attached.

Hamstring Pull, Tear, or Strain 

Hamstring injuries are common among runners and can range from minor strains to total rupture of the muscle at the back of the thigh.

Iliotibial Band Syndrome 

The IT band runs along the outside of the thigh. Iliotibial band friction syndrome often results in knee pain that is generally felt on the outside (lateral) aspect of the knee or lower.

Muscle Cramps 

A cramp is a sudden, intense pain caused by a muscle involuntary and forcibly contracting and not relaxing. It is similar to, but not the same as, a side stitch.

Overtraining Syndrome 

Overtraining syndrome frequently occurs in athletes who are training for competition or a specific event and train beyond the body's ability to recover. Symptoms include decreased appetite; feeling depressed, anxious, or moody; and a lack of energy, among others.

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

This term usually refers to pain under and around the kneecap. It is also called "runner's knee."

Piriformis Syndrome 

If the piriformis muscle (which is at the top of the buttocks and helps stabilize the hip joint) becomes tight or cramps, it can put pressure on the sciatic nerve and cause buttock pain or sciatica. It is also possible for the piriformis to get overstretched when running with poor mechanics or excessive fatigue.

Plantar Fasciitis 

Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of pain on the bottom of the heel. It isand usually defined by pain during the first steps of the morning

Pulled or Strained Calf Muscle 

Calf strain occurs when part of the muscles of the lower leg (gastrocnemius or soleus) are pulled from the Achilles tendon. It differs from an Achilles tendon rupture in that a rupture requires surgical treatment and a pull or strain can be rehabilitated with therapy.

Shin Splints 

This is a pain that occurs in the front of the lower leg along the tibia (shin bone). Shin splints are considered a cumulative (overuse) bone stress injury.

Sprains and Strains 

Strains and sprains are acute injuries that vary in severity but usually result in pain, swelling, bruising, and loss of the ability to move and use the affected joint.

Stress Fractures

Stress fractures in the feet or legs are often the result of overuse or repeated impact on a hard surface (versus an acute, or sudden, injury).

Tendonitis and Ruptured Tendon 

Tendonitis is simply inflammation of a tendon. It generally occurs from overuse, but can also occur from a forceful contraction that causes microtears and degeneration in the tendon. These tears can lead to overall weakness and inflammation.

A research review found that the one-year injury rate was 27% in novice runners, 32% in long distance runners, and 52% in marathon runners.

Preventing Running Injuries

Regardless of your running experience, the best advice for preventing any injury is to pay careful attention to any warning signs of an injury.

Wear Proper Footwear

You need running shoes that are appropriate for your gait and the distance that you run. They also need to be correctly fitted so as not to cause blisters or constrict your feet.

Replace Shoes as Needed

Running shoes need to be replaced every 300 to 500 miles. Not only is there wear on the soles and uppers, but they also lose their cushioning and support.

Alternate Your Running Shoes

It's smart to own more than one pair of comfortable running shoes. Alternate the pair that you wear when you run. Running with different style shoes helps to expose your body and your feet to different stresses and makes you more resilient to any type of stress.

Warm Up Properly

Spend a few minutes walking and jogging slowly before you run so your muscles and joints are ready for more effort.

Cross Train

You need to be in good shape to run. It's not a good sport to use to get fit. Running shouldn't be your only form of exercise, or you will overtrain your running muscles and ignore the rest, making you unbalanced.

Strength Train

Resistance training is a must for the hips, knees, calves, and core. Perform single leg exercises and also exercises that work in different planes of movement. For example, lateral (side) lunges and rotational exercises are good for runners, since running doesn't require those types of movements.

Stretch After Running

Whether stretching reduces the risk of injury is still a matter of debate by researchers. Pre-run stretching has the least evidence of benefit, while post-run stretching or stretching as its own activity may help your flexibility and range of motion.

Dynamic stretches are most effective before the run and can help to reduce perceived soreness or stiffness after the run.

Avoid Overtraining

Recovery time is important in getting the full benefit of your workouts, while fatigue can increase your risk of injury. Take regular rest days.

Follow the 10% Rule

Do not increase your running distance by more than 10% per week. If that feels like too much, increase by no more than 5%.

Change Up Your Running Route

Running the same route over and over may expose more stress to specific body regions and therefore to overuse injuries. Explore new routes and new routines. It's better for your body and helps banish running boredom.

7 Sources
Verywell Fit uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
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Additional Reading

By Elizabeth Quinn, MS
Elizabeth Quinn is an exercise physiologist, sports medicine writer, and fitness consultant for corporate wellness and rehabilitation clinics.