Can Supplements Help You Live Longer?

Oranges in clear capsule to represent vitamin C supplements
Alita Ong/Stocksy United

The idea that you can take something to extend your life is seductive, especially given the vast array of vitamins and mineral supplements on the market. Seems simple: more nutrients = more years. At a time when we’re all being told we should eat more fruits and vegetables, are supplements a hedge against a diet that’s lacking?

Because there are nutrients that you require as you get older to keep your body healthy and disease-free, many people turn to the supplement industry—with sales hitting $123.28 billion in 2019. Despite this, research continues to be divided on whether individual supplements improve longevity, are harmful, or are simply excreted right out of your body.

What Should You Do for a Longer, Healthy Life?

First of all, remember that the best source of any ingredient is food. Diets rich in beta-carotene have been associated with a lower risk of cancer, for example, but the same protective effect was not found with beta-carotene supplements. Here are some supplements are commonly taken for longevity and the research associated with them:

Calcium

This mineral keeps bones strong and is necessary for muscle and nerve function and blood transport. In a 2011 review of the Iowa Women’s Health Study, in which 38,000 older women were tracked over a 22-year period, calcium was the only common multivitamin component shown to have a positive effect on mortality—that is, those women taking calcium (average 400-1300 mg/day) had a slightly lower risk of dying during that time. By contrast, other reviews of longitudinal or long-term studies have suggested that taking calcium supplements can increase the risk of heart attack and stroke in women. In light of conflicting research, it’s best to talk to your doctor about the safety of calcium supplements.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D works with calcium to keep bones healthy; it may also help protect against certain cancers and other diseases. It’s synthesized in the skin in the presence of UV light, so concerns have been raised about whether people living in northern climates with reduced daylight in winter can get enough. Research shows that both vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D toxicity may play a role in the development of cancer and cardiovascular disease.

By contrast, a 2013 study of more than 9,000 participants in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos) found neither harm nor benefit to mortality associated with vitamin D intake over a 10-year period.

Vitamin B6

Vitamin B is involved in the creation of neurotransmitters and blood cells, and regulating levels of an amino acid called homocysteine. Because B vitamins like folic acid, B6, and B12 have been shown to lower homocysteine levels—a status associated with a lesser risk of heart disease and stroke—researchers have investigated whether supplementation would help prevent these conditions and improve longevity. In several large-scale studies, however, these B vitamins as supplements had no effect on the incidence, or severity, of heart disease or stroke. Similarly, in research examining the effect of B6 supplements on the incidence of cancer, no effect on mortality was found.

Vitamin B12

People over the age of 50 may not absorb vitamin B12—required for blood and nerve health—as effectively. Previously, it was believed that vitamin B12 (like B6) supplementation, especially when combined with folic acid, could help ward off heart disease and stroke, but that has largely been discounted. Research is ongoing to see if vitamin B12 can help treat or prevent dementia, which could, in turn, promote longevity.

Vitamin C

Necessary for the manufacture of collagen and certain neurotransmitters, Vitamin C is also a powerful antioxidant. It seems that vitamin C deficiency may be associated with a higher risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease and may improve endothelial function and lipid profiles for some people. Research is ongoing to determine whether vitamin C will help prevent certain cancers and cardiovascular disease.

Selenium

A trace mineral, selenium is used to form antioxidant enzymes in the body. Antioxidants mop up the harmful byproducts of cell metabolism and environmental toxin exposure. Selenium levels in populations vary according to the concentration of the mineral in the soil where food is grown. Supplementation of selenium has been associated with an increase in mortality in some research. In one study, selenium decreased rates of gastric and lung cancer in populations with low levels, but increased rates in those with higher levels. Most studies have considered supplements in the range of 100-200mcg; federal dietary guidelines suggest that adults over the age of 19 should consume daily totals of 55 mcg/day, not to exceed 400 mcg/day.

Beta-Carotene

A form of vitamin A found in colorful fruits and vegetables, diets rich in beta-carotene have been associated with a lower risk of cancer. Studies into beta-carotene supplements have not shown the same results; some have actually indicated an increase in mortality. There is no recommended daily allowance (RDA) for beta-carotene.

Bottom Line

Supplement research faces challenges in terms of sorting out other lifestyle factors (or "confounding" aspects) like smoking, likelihood of getting screened for diseases, diet, and exercise. It will probably be some time before science tells us with certainty which vitamins and minerals can help extend our lives, and by how much.

Remember that many studies have shown that a plant-based Mediterranean-style diet, with lots of fruits and vegetables that are high in fiber, delivers the necessary nutrients for most people.

Make sure you consult your physician or nutritionist before taking any supplements. More is not better, so don’t megadose. Vitamins and minerals from all sources (fortified foods, multi-vitamins, single-vitamin products) add up. They can also interfere with medication you may be taking and can be dangerous for people with certain medical conditions.

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