The 9 Best Vitamins for Women of 2023

Garden of Life Mykind Multivitamin is made from whole foods and is NSF certified

We independently evaluate all recommended products and services. If you click on links we provide, we may receive compensation. Learn more.

Eating a nutritious, well-balanced diet can provide you with most of the vitamins and nutrients that you need for optimal health. But if you follow a restrictive diet, are unable to eat certain foods, are taking certain medications, have a diagnosed deficiency or medical condition, or are going through certain life stages, such as older adulthood, you may especially benefit from a vitamin supplement. Women who may become pregnant, are pregnant, or are breastfeeding also have increased vitamin needs.

The type and dose of vitamins a woman needs will depend on her health status, stage of life, and dietary intake. When choosing a vitamin or multivitamin, you want to prioritize those that are third-party tested to ensure the supplement does not contain harmful contaminants and is made with the actual ingredients listed. You also want to check the ingredients list to be aware of any additives like probiotics, enzymes, and herbs, which may or may not be beneficial for you. 

In order to determine the best vitamins for women, our registered dietitian used her clinical experience, the latest research, and consultations with experts in the field of women’s health, including Tyffanie Ammeter, MS, RDN, CSG, CDN, a board-certified specialist in gerontological nutrition (nutrition for older adults). Ammeter recommends working with a healthcare provider to assess your needs, including lab testing to help determine which supplements you need and in what doses.

Editor's Note

Our team of registered dietitians reviews and evaluates every single supplement we recommend according to our dietary supplement methodology. From there, a registered dietitian on our Expert Review Board reviews each article for scientific accuracy.

Those who are taking medications should consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements, as they can impact absorption and efficacy of certain medications.

Always speak with a healthcare professional before adding a supplement to your routine to ensure that the supplement is appropriate for your individual needs, and to find out what dosage to take.

Best Overall

Garden of Life Mykind Organics Women’s Daily Tablets

Garden of Life Mykind Organics Women’s Daily Tablets


  • NSF certified and approved

  • NSF certified gluten-free

  • Made from organic food blend

  • Large pill size

  • Not completely odorless and flavorless

We are big fans of the Garden of Life Mykind women's multivitamin since they prioritize using organic food sources. This vegan multivitamin provides a spectrum of nutrients needed for women’s optimal health. It contains at least 100 percent of most essential nutrients including vitamins A, C, D, E, and K. We like that this multivitamin contains the most absorbable active forms, like vitamin D in the form of D3, and vitamin B12 in the form of methylcobalamin. It’s also NSF certified and approved. This means it has gone through additional third-party testing to ensure that it contains the amounts of nutrients listed on the label and is free of contaminants. 

Although it contains more vitamins B6, B12, and biotin than recommended, these vitamins are water-soluble, which means your body will eliminate any excess amounts. Garden of Life’s tablets are soy-free, dairy-free, and gluten-free, making them ideal for anyone looking to avoid those products. The recommended serving is two tablets daily with food.

Compare this label with your individual needs and consult a healthcare professional to make sure the nutrients, doses, and food sources included are appropriate for you.

Price at time of publication: $40 ($1.33 per serving)

Key Specs:
Active Nutrients
: Many | Form: Tablet | Dose: 2 tablets daily | Servings Per Container: 30

Best Prenatal

Ritual Essential Prenatal

Ritual Essential Prenatal


  • Third-party tested

  • Contains omega-3 DHA

  • Citrus or mint-scented

  • Allergen-friendly

  • Does not contain vitamins A or C

  • Low in choline

Ritual’s Essential Prenatal multivitamin is a favorite among those looking for essential nutrients needed to support a healthy pregnancy. The capsules provide 12 major vitamins and minerals including the most absorbable forms of vitamin D, as vitamin D3, and vitamin B12, as methylcobalamin. This multivitamin also contains omega-3 DHA, an important nutrient needed for growth and development during pregnancy.

Ritual’s products are 100 percent traceable, third-party tested, vegan, gluten-free, and contain no artificial colors. The delayed-release capsules are mint or citrus-scented, which may be helpful for pregnant women experiencing morning sickness or who have aversions to certain smells. Just two capsules are needed daily. Ritual is a subscription service that can be adjusted or canceled at any time. 

Although the capsule exceeds normal recommendations for vitamin D, it does not exceed the upper limit of 100 micrograms, and this higher dose may, in fact, be beneficial. It is important to note that these capsules lack vitamins A and C, and are low in choline, an essential nutrient for growing a baby. A healthcare provider can help determine if this prenatal vitamin best suits individual needs.

Price at time of publication: $43 ($1.44 per serving)

Key Specs:
Active Nutrients
: Many | Form: Capsule | Dose: 2 capsules daily | Servings Per Container: 30

Best Multivitamin for Women Over 50

Garden of Life mykind Organics Women 55+

Garden of Life mykind Organics Women 55+


  • NSF certified

  • USDA organic

  • Made from whole-food blend

  • Contains many ingredients

We recommend this pick because they are NSF certified, gluten-free, soy-free, dairy-free, vegan, and made from an organic food blend. Garden of Life’s Mykind 55+ tablets provide 100 percent of most vitamins needed to support health in the most absorbable forms from whole foods.

Women over the age of 50 years can have unique nutritional needs that may benefit from vitamin supplements. According to Ammeter, “Women over 50 are at risk for a decreased appetite, which can lead to not eating enough, as well as a decline in oral health that can affect the ability to chew…Some older women [also] have a decreased ability to absorb vitamin B12.” She adds, “Women over 50 are generally at risk for low bone density (osteoporosis or osteopenia) and losing muscle mass, which decreases strength and can affect mobility.” 

Studies show that women experiencing low bone density and a decrease in appetite can benefit from multivitamin supplements, especially those containing vitamin B12 and vitamin D. 

One potential downside is the number of ingredients listed. A healthcare professional can give further clarity if there is any individual concern about the ingredients in this multivitamin.

Price at time of publication: $36 ($1.20 per serving)

Key Specs:
Active Nutrients
: Many | Form: Tablet | Dose: 1 tablet daily | Servings Per Container: 30

Best Vitamin D

Nordic Naturals Vitamin D3-25 mcg

Nordic Naturals Vitamin D3-25 mcg

Courtesy of Amazon

  • Contains the preferred absorbable form

  •  Budget-friendly

  • Third-party tested

  • May not be adequate dose to correct a vitamin D deficiency

We like Nordic Naturals Vitamin D3 because it provides 1,000 IU of D3 as cholecalciferol in the form of a mini softgel. Vitamin D is a nutrient women need for bone health, reducing inflammation, and breaking down carbohydrates in the body. But most people consume less than the recommended amounts of vitamin D. While our bodies naturally make vitamin D from ultraviolet sun exposure, this can be difficult to get enough of in the winter months, especially if you live in a colder climate and don't have the right shoes for walking on ice. Vitamin D is in limited food sources like fatty fish, fish oils, and mushrooms which is another reason women might benefit from this supplement. 

Vitamin D3, or cholecalciferol, is the most absorbable and preferred supplement form. Nordic Naturals vitamin D3 is gluten-free, contains no artificial colors, and has a natural orange flavor. We also like that all Nordic Natural products are budget-friendly, and third-party tested, and you can access a certificate of analysis for each lot number.

You should discuss your vitamin D levels and how to supplement with a healthcare provider if you are taking weight loss medications, statins, steroids, blood-pressure-lowering medications, or if you are taking a supplement that already contains vitamin D. If you are looking to learn more about the different forms of vitamin D and explore a variety of supplement options, read more about the best vitamin D supplements.

Price at time of publication: $18 ($0.15 per serving)

Key Specs:
Active Nutrients
: Vitamin D3 (as cholecalciferol) | Form: Mini softgel | Dose: 1 gel (1000 IU) daily | Servings Per Container: 120

Best B12

Nature Made Sublingual B-12 1,000 mcg

Nature's Made Sublingual B-12 1000 mcg


  • USP verified

  • Inexpensive

  • Bypasses gut absorption

  • May not be adequate dose to correct a vitamin B12 deficiency

  • Some may not like the artificial sweeteners and flavoring

Nature Made B12 provides 1,000 micrograms of vitamin B12 in sublingual lozenges that are USP-verified and contain no colors or preservatives. These don't require you to swallow a pill as sublingual lozenges are placed under the tongue to dissolve. Vitamin B12 is important for women of all ages but is especially important during childbearing age. B12 is essential for the development and function of the central nervous system, as well as for healthy red blood cell formation. 

Vitamin B12 is present in food sources of animal origin, like meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy products, and B12 may best be absorbed best from dairy products. Therefore vegetarians and vegans will likely need a B12 supplement to avoid B12 deficiency. Additionally, according to Ammeter, “if an individual is taking metformin long term, has low stomach acid due to medications, or has a history of weight loss surgery, a sublingual vitamin B12 supplement can be helpful.” 

We like Nature Made’s B12 sublingual lozenge because you only need one daily. The daily recommendation for vitamin B12 intake is 2.4 micrograms for adult women. The supplement absorption rate is only 1.3% at doses of 1,000 micrograms. So, you are only absorbing about 13 micrograms from this supplement. Vitamin B12 is water-soluble and has a low potential for toxicity, so even at large doses it is generally considered to be safe. While we like these bypass the gut for absorption, some may not appreciate the cherry flavor or that they have artificial flavors and sweeteners.

Price at time of publication: $9 ($0.18 per serving)

Key Specs:
Active Nutrients
: Vitamin B12 (as cyanocobalamin) | Form: Lozenge | Dose: 1 lozenge (1,000 mcg) daily | Servings Per Container: 50

Best Vitamin C

Thorne Vitamin C

Thorne Vitamin C


  • approved

  • No artificial colors or flavors

  • Gluten-, dairy-, and soy-free

  • More expensive than other vitamin C supplements

We like Thorne’s Vitamin C with Flavonoids because it offers 500 micrograms of ascorbic acid and is approved, gluten-free, dairy-free, and soy-free. Vitamin C is needed for collagen synthesis, wound healing, immune response, and to help iron absorption in our bodies. Vitamin C also acts as an antioxidant, helping to reduce inflammation from potentially cancer-causing molecules. A unique feature of this choice is the citrus flavonoids that are added as an extra source of antioxidants. Note if you take an iron supplement or are iron deficient, these added flavonoids may slightly interfere with optimal iron absorption.

If your diet is rich in fruit and vegetables, then you are probably getting enough daily vitamin C. However, if you have a limited food variety, are a smoker, or are at risk for kidney disease, then you may benefit most from a vitamin C supplement, specifically in the ascorbic acid form.

Those taking a statin or lipid-lowering medication or undergoing chemotherapy or radiation should consult with a healthcare provider to assess vitamin C levels and determine if a supplement is needed. Although there is not a big concern for vitamin C toxicity if you are taking a supplement that already contains vitamin C, consult with a provider before adding anything additional.

Price at time of publication: $47 ($0.0.26 per serving)

Key Specs:
Active Nutrients
: Vitamin C (as ascorbic acid) | Form: Capsule | Dose: 1 capsule (500 mcg) daily | Servings Per Container: 180

Best B Complex

Thorne Research Thorne Basic B Complex

Thorne Research Thorne Basic B Complex

Courtesy of Amazon

  • NSF Certified

  • No artificial colors or flavors

  • Soy-, dairy- and gluten-free

  • Higher dose may not be suitable for all

Thorne's Basic B Complex supplement is our top B complex choice because it is NSF certified, contains naturally derived flavors and colors, and is soy-, dairy-, and gluten-free.

Also, this supplement contains higher doses of B vitamins, which may be more appropriate to correct a deficiency. Women who are pregnant, vegan, age 50 or older, have had weight loss surgery, or have digestive or gastrointestinal issues may be at higher risk for B vitamin deficiencies and may benefit most from a B-complex supplement.

These capsules include the eight B-complex vitamins that have a variety of functions in the body, including helping break down carbohydrates, protein, and fat, and helping to regulate the effects of stress and the immune system.

Price at time of publication: $25 ($0.42 per serving)

Key Specs:
Active Nutrients
: B vitamins (many) | Form: Capsule | Dose: 1 capsule daily | Servings per container: 60

Best Folate

NatureMade Folic Acid 400mcg Tablets

Nature Made Folic Acid


  • USP verified

  • Budget-friendly

  • Small tablet size

  • May not be adequate dose to correct a folate deficiency

NatureMade Folic Acid tablets provide 400 micrograms of folic acid—167% daily value—in a USP-verified, gluten-free tablet that you only need to take once daily. Folate is a B vitamin that is an essential nutrient needed for development, growth, and DNA synthesis. You can get folate in your diet from foods such as chicken liver, legumes, and dark leafy greens. Folate is an important supplement for women who are pregnant and women in their childbearing years, as folate deficiency increases the risk of future and recurrent neural tube defects during pregnancy. 

If you are pregnant, you will benefit from supplementing beyond just folate and may best benefit most from taking folate as part of a prenatal multivitamin. Therefore, just a folate supplement may be best for women of childbearing age to ensure adequate folate should they become pregnant.

These tablets also contain a small amount of calcium, a mineral important for maintaining the structure of bones, teeth, and muscles. Older adults, pregnant women, and women of childbearing age have increased needs for calcium and may appreciate this addition to this supplement.

Folate deficiency is generally associated with alcohol use, those who have malabsorptive disorders, and those with a diet lacking variety. Therefore these groups of women may also especially benefit from a folate supplement, as guided by a healthcare professional.

Price at time of publication: $6 ($0.02 per serving)

Key Specs:
Active Nutrients
: Folic acid, calcium carbonate | Form: Tablet | Dose: 1 tablet daily | Servings Per Container: 250

Best Omega-3

Nordic Naturals Ultimate Omega-3

Nordic Naturals Ultimate Omega-3


  • Certified sustainable

  • Sourced from wild-caught fish

  • No fishy after-taste

  • Liquid form may not be suitable for all

Nordic Naturals Ultimate Omega contains high levels of omega-3 fatty acids, specifically EPA and DHA. These fatty acids have been shown to support brain and heart health, as well as healthy joint function and skin health.

This product is sourced from high-quality, sustainability caught wild fish — sardines and anchovies — and undergoes rigorous purification processes to remove any potential contaminants. Plus, this product is backed by 14+ clinical trials.

Each servings contains 2,840 mg of omega-3s, and with a slight lemon-flavor, there is no fishy after-taste. If taking this supplement on its own doesn't seem ideal for you, you can try mixing it into a juice or smoothie.

Price at time of publication: $34 ($1.42 per serving)

Key Specs:

Active Nutrients
: EPA and DHA | Form: Liquid | Dose: 1 teaspoon daily | Servings Per Container: 24

Are Women’s Vitamins Beneficial?

Supplemental vitamins can be beneficial for some women, but not everyone will require them. The majority of your vitamin intake should mostly come from food and beverage sources, but additional vitamin supplements may be beneficial for women unable to meet recommendations through diet alone.

Some women may benefit from taking one or more vitamins, including:

  • Women of childbearing age: It is recommended that women of childbearing age take a multivitamin. Not all pregnancies are planned, and some women might be pregnant without knowing. The first trimester of pregnancy is crucial for the growth and development of a pregnant woman as well as for the baby. If there is a chance that a woman could become pregnant, experts suggest it may be beneficial to take certain vitamins, even if you’re not planning to become pregnant.
  • Women who are pregnant: Nutrients such as folic acid, vitamin D, and vitamin A are essential vitamins needed to support the health of mom and baby. Nutrient needs during pregnancy are elevated and some pregnant women may eliminate certain foods due to nausea, so a multivitamin or specific vitamin supplement may be beneficial.
  • Women in their 50s and older: Nutritional needs change as you get older. Studies show that women who are older are at a greater risk for nutrient deficiencies. “While all vitamins are important to consume in recommended amounts for overall health, women over 50 need to focus on vitamin D,” says Ammeter. Additionally, as you age, vitamin B12 needs are elevated because your body may not be able to absorb the vitamin as well. 
  • People with reduced nutrient absorption: Certain digestive conditions can affect your body’s ability to absorb and use vitamins. Additionally, some medications can reduce your body’s ability to absorb nutrients. It is best to consult with a healthcare provider to determine if a vitamin supplement is necessary for you.
  • People with restrictive diets: Those following diets that restrict certain types of foods may consider adding certain supplements to their routine. For example, most vegetarians and vegans need a B12 supplement. Those eliminating certain food groups may also consider adding a vitamin supplement.

Who May Not Benefit from Vitamins?

Not everyone will benefit from taking vitamin supplements. Vitamins have different doses of nutrients which can sometimes be dangerous if too much is consumed. Always consult with a healthcare provider to review any supplements you plan to begin.

Women who may not benefit from a vitamin supplement include:

  • Those who eat a well-balanced diet: If your diet is rich in a variety of nutrients from fruit, vegetables, lean meats, eggs, nuts, seeds, beans, low-fat dairy products, and fish, then you are likely meeting your nutrient needs and supplements may not be necessary. 
  • Those taking a multivitamin or individual vitamins: If you are already taking a multivitamin or individual vitamin, consult with a healthcare provider before adding a new vitamin. Taking multiple dietary supplements can result in vitamin toxicity and could cause serious health effects.
  • Those taking certain medications: Some vitamins, like vitamin A, can interact with certain medications, so be sure to check with a healthcare provider first if you are taking any medications.

This article specifically touches on recommendations for essential vitamins—the vitamins you need to get from food and/or supplements. The essential vitamins include vitamins A, C, D, E, and K, and eight B vitamins, some of which we can easily get from the diet and some of which we more commonly need to supplement. We will also provide recommendations for multivitamins, which often contain vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients.

To read an article that covers vitamins and multivitamins and also touches on other individual nutrients including minerals and other nutrients like omega-3s and choline, take a look at our breakdown of the best supplements for women.

How We Select Supplements

Our team works hard to be transparent about why we recommend certain supplements; you can read more about our dietary supplement methodology here

We support supplements that are evidence-based and rooted in science. We value certain product attributes that we find to be associated with the highest quality products. We prioritize products that are third-party tested and certified by one of three independent third-party certifiers: USP, NSF, or ConsumerLab.

It's important to note that the FDA does not review dietary supplements for safety and effectiveness before they go to market. Our team of experts has created a detailed, science-backed methodology to choose the supplements we recommend.

What To Look For

Third-Party Testing

Supplements that are third-party tested are sent to a lab where they are tested to ensure they contain what they say they contain and are not contaminated with specific high-risk, common contaminants. However, it’s important to note:

  • Third-party testing does not test to see if a product is effective or safe for everyone, and it does not ensure the supplement will not interact with other supplements or medications.
  • Not all third-party testing is created equal. It is not uncommon for supplement companies to pay labs for certificates after conducting minimal to no testing. 
  • The third-party certifications we can trust are: ConsumerLab, NSF, and USP. However, these certifications are difficult to obtain and/or expensive for manufacturers, so many companies choose not to get their products tested by one of these three organizations. 
  • Sometimes products tested by these three companies are more expensive to try to offset the cost they pay for certification.
  • Just because a supplement is not tested by one of these three companies does not mean it’s a bad product. We recommend doing some research on the reputability of the manufacturer and calling up the manufacturer and their testing lab to determine their protocols and decide if you feel comfortable consuming the supplement.


Vitamins and multivitamins are available in many different physical forms, including tablets, capsules, softgels, gummies, and even liquid forms. You may notice that we generally recommend tablets, capsules, and softgels over gummies and liquids, as it is often easier to get adequate doses more easily into those forms, though you can still easily and adequately supplement using liquids or gummies for certain nutrients.

There are also different chemical forms of each vitamin that can impact how absorbable they are. As noted in this article, in some cases, such as with folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin D, there are one or more chemical forms that are better than others to supplement with. Speak with a healthcare provider to determine what is best for you.   

Ingredients and Potential Interactions

It is essential to carefully read the ingredient list and nutrition facts panel of a supplement to know which ingredients and how much of each ingredient is included relative to the recommended daily value of that ingredient. Please bring the supplement label to a healthcare provider to review the different ingredients contained in the supplement and any potential interactions between these ingredients and other supplements and medications you are taking.

Multivitamins and individual vitamins can have the potential to interact with certain medications, such as blood pressure-lowering medications, blood thinners, metformin, and statins. Some nutrients will decrease the absorption of another, like iron and calcium, which compete for absorption. 

Other nutrients actually help others absorb better, like iron and vitamin C. It is essential to read the ingredients list for any additives that you might be avoiding. Work with a healthcare provider to determine your needs.

Women’s Vitamin Dosage

There is no standard dose for multivitamins, but there are standards for individual vitamins. Most manufacturers base their dosages for vitamins using daily values (DVs) and dietary reference intakes (DRIs). There is research to suggest there may be some benefits from higher doses to correct deficiencies, supplement for stages of life such as pregnancy or certain medical conditions, and to make up for the lower absorption rates of some supplements. 

However, excessive amounts of some vitamins can become toxic. That is why some vitamins have established upper intake levels (ULs), which can generally be used to avoid adverse effects from over-supplementation.

Always speak with a healthcare provider first before adding a multivitamin, individual vitamin, or other supplements to your routine.

How Much Is Too Much?

Excessive amounts of some vitamins can become toxic. That is why some vitamins have established upper intake levels (ULs), which can generally be used to avoid adverse effects from over-supplementation.

The tolerable upper limit is established by the US Institute of Medicine Food and Nutrition Board and outlined by the National Institute of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. Excess amounts of water-soluble vitamins (the B vitamins and vitamin C) will be eliminated by the body, so there is generally little concern for toxicity aside from extremely high doses of folate, niacin, and B6. However, fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, E, and K) can be stored in fat tissue and become dangerous if consumed in excess. Minerals that may be included in multivitamins, such as iron, calcium, selenium, and copper, can also lead to health concerns if consumed in excess. 

Whether you are looking for a multivitamin, a prenatal, or an individual vitamin, you can help ensure you are not exceeding the vitamin upper limits by running your supplement pick by a healthcare provider.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • How much vitamin D should women take each day?

    The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for vitamin D for adult women is 15 micrograms, or 600 IU (international units) daily. The same recommendation applies to those who are pregnant or breastfeeding. In order to maintain adequate levels, adults might need at least 37.5 to 50 micrograms (or 1,500–2,000 IU) daily of supplemental vitamin D. 

    This value is based on the assumption that most women receive minimal sunlight and therefore require the majority of their vitamin D intake through food and supplemental sources. Ultraviolet rays from sunlight help our bodies create vitamin D, but most women do not get adequate amounts of direct sunlight, especially during winter months, so vitamin D will most likely need to be supplemented.

  • How much vitamin C should a woman take each day?

    The recommended dietary allowance of vitamin C for adult women is 75 milligrams daily. The recommendations increase to 85 milligrams and 120 milligrams if you are pregnant or breastfeeding, respectively. Individuals who smoke will require an extra 35 milligrams per day. It is common to see supplement values higher than this RDA because vitamin C is water-soluble, and any excess will be eliminated by the body.

  • What vitamins must a woman take?

    If you are deficient in a specific vitamin, then it is beneficial to take that vitamin supplement daily. A healthcare provider will be able to determine if you have a vitamin deficiency and how much of a supplement you will need to take to help correct a deficiency. Your dietary intake will also determine if you need additional vitamins. Adding a folate and vitamin D supplement at minimum when trying to conceive, during pregnancy, and while breastfeeding can be beneficial. A daily multivitamin will include most of the vitamins necessary for women in all stages of life.

  • What are the three most important vitamins?

    All vitamins play an essential role in supporting women’s health, but the three vitamins to pay special attention to are vitamin D, vitamin B12, and folate (or vitamin B9). These three vitamins have crucial roles in different stages of a woman’s life. “The most common vitamin deficiencies I see in women over 50 are low vitamin D and low vitamin B12," says Ammeter. Vitamin D is important for maintaining bone health, reducing inflammation, and helping regulate carbohydrate metabolism. Folate, essential for women during childbearing years, helps prevent pregnancy-related complications like neural tube defects. Vitamin B12 is important for red blood cells and DNA synthesis. When looking for a multivitamin, ensure it contains these three.

  • Is it okay for a man to take women's vitamins?

    Vitamins, and multivitamins, marketed for women may be safe for men. It is important to note that RDAs for some nutrients, such as iron, will be higher for women than for men, so supplements marketed for women may result in over-supplementation in men. RDAs for vitamin A and some B vitamins are higher for men than women, which could also result in a lack of nutrients for a man taking a vitamin marketed for women. It is best to check with a healthcare provider about the best supplement for you.

32 Sources
Verywell Fit uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. NIH - Office of Dietary Supplements. Multivitamin/mineral supplements: fact sheet for consumers.

  2. Mousa A, Naqash A, Lim S. Macronutrient and micronutrient intake during pregnancy: an overview of recent evidence. Nutrients. 2019;11(2):443. doi:10.3390/nu11020443

  3. MedlinePlus Genetics. MTHFR gene.

  4. NIH - Office of Dietary Supplements. Vitamin B12: fact sheet for health professionals.

  5. Cooperman T, M.D. Multivitamin and multimineral supplements review & top picks.

  6. Shibata K, Hirose J, Fukuwatari T. Relationship between urinary concentrations of nine water-soluble vitamins and their vitamin intakes in japanese adult males. Nutr Metab Insights. 2014;7:NMI.S17245. doi:10.4137/NMI.S17245

  7. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Nutrition During Pregnancy.

  8. NIH - Office of Dietary Supplements. Vitamin D: fact sheet for health professionals.

  9. Fischer LM, da Costa KA, Kwock L, Galanko J, Zeisel SH. Dietary choline requirements of women: effects of estrogen and genetic variation. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2010;92(5):1113-1119. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2010.30064

  10. Rondanelli M, Faliva MA, Barrile GC, et al. Nutrition, physical activity, and dietary supplementation to prevent bone mineral density loss: a food pyramid. Nutrients. 2021;14(1):74. doi:10.3390/nu14010074

  11. Vieth R. Vitamin D supplementation: cholecalciferol, calcifediol, and calcitriol. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2020;74(11):1493-1497. doi:10.1038/s41430-020-0697-1

  12. Carmel R. How I treat cobalamin (vitamin b12) deficiency. Blood. 2008;112(6):2214-2221. doi:10.1182/blood-2008-03-040253

  13. Cooperman T, M.D. Vitamin c supplements review & top picks.

  14. NIH - Office of Dietary Supplements. Vitamin C: fact sheet for health professionals.

  15. Lesjak M, K. S. Srai S. Role of dietary flavonoids in iron homeostasisPharmaceuticals. 2019;12(3):119. doi:10.3390/ph12030119

  16. Carr AC, Rowe S. Factors affecting vitamin c status and prevalence of deficiency: a global health perspective. Nutrients. 2020;12(7):1963. doi:10.3390/nu12071963

  17. Young LM, Pipingas A, White DJ, Gauci S, Scholey A. A systematic review and meta-analysis of b vitamin supplementation on depressive symptoms, anxiety, and stress: effects on healthy and “at-risk” individuals. Nutrients. 2019;11(9):E2232. doi:10.3390/nu11092232

  18. Peterson CT, Rodionov DA, Osterman AL, Peterson SN. B vitamins and their role in immune regulation and cancer. Nutrients. 2020;12(11):E3380. doi:10.3390/nu12113380

  19. Blencowe H, Cousens S, Modell B, Lawn J. Folic acid to reduce neonatal mortality from neural tube disorders. Int J Epidemiol. 2010;39 Suppl 1:i110-121. doi:10.1093/ije/dyq028

  20. NIH - Office of Dietary Supplements. Calcium: fact sheet for health professionals.

  21. NIH - Office of Dietary Supplements. Folate: fact sheet for health professionals.

  22. NIH - Office of Dietary Supplements. Multivitamin/mineral supplements: fact sheet for health professionals.

  23. Bird J, Murphy R, Ciappio E, McBurney M. Risk of deficiency in multiple concurrent micronutrients in children and adults in the united states. Nutrients. 2017;9(7):655. doi:10.3390/nu9070655

  24. CDC. Folic acid recommendations.

  25. Yalew A, Tekle Silasie W, Anato A, Fikrie A. Food aversion during pregnancy and its association with nutritional status of pregnant women in Boricha Woreda, Sidama Regional State, Southern Ethiopia, 2019. A community based mixed crossectional study design. Reprod Health. 2021;18(1):208. doi:10.1186/s12978-021-01258-w

  26. USDA. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2020-2025.

  27. Montoro-Huguet MA, Belloc B, Domínguez-Cajal M. Small and large intestine (I): malabsorption of nutrients. Nutrients. 2021;13(4):1254. doi:10.3390/nu13041254

  28. National Library of Medicine. Malabsorption Syndromes.

  29. Clarys P, Deliens T, Huybrechts I, et al. Comparison of nutritional quality of the vegan, vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian and omnivorous diet. Nutrients. 2014;6(3):1318-1332. doi:10.3390/nu6031318

  30. NIH - Office of Dietary Supplements. Vitamin A and carotenoids: fact sheet for health professionals.

  31. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine. Vitamins.

  32. NIH - Office of Dietary Supplements. Vitamin A and carotenoids: fact sheet for health professionals.