The 8 Best Magnesium Supplements of 2022

Pure Encapsulations Magnesium is highly absorbable and third-party tested

We independently research, test, review, and recommend the best products. Healthcare professionals review articles for medical accuracy. Learn more about our process. If you buy something through our links, we may earn a commission.

Commerce Photo Composite

Verywell Fit / Lecia Landis

Magnesium is an essential mineral involved in several processes in the body, including blood sugar control, muscle function, nerve messaging, and protein production. As with most vitamins and minerals, it is preferred to get your magnesium from food first, incorporating magnesium-rich foods like seeds, nuts, spinach, whole grains, yogurt, and legumes.

However, nearly half of Americans may not be meeting their estimated average requirement of magnesium from food. If you are unable to meet your needs or if you have a health condition or a dietary restriction that may impact your magnesium status, you may benefit from a magnesium supplement. For example, those with certain gastrointestinal disorders that cause constipation, pregnant and breastfeeding people, people with diabetes, and older adults may have increased magnesium requirements. 

If a healthcare provider has recommended you start a magnesium supplement, be sure to fully understand the ideal form and dosage best suited for you and your needs. Magnesium supplements are available in many different forms, each with different benefits, absorbability, and effects on the body. For this round-up, we prioritized supplements that are third-party tested and contain research-backed forms of magnesium in appropriate dosages.

Verywell Fit Approved Magnesium Supplements

Always speak with a healthcare professional before adding a supplement to your routine to ensure that the supplement is appropriate for your individual needs and which dosage to take.

Is a Magnesium Supplement Beneficial?

If you are magnesium deficient or have a health condition that puts you at risk for deficiency, a magnesium supplement may be beneficial.

People who do not consume balanced diets: People that have difficulty incorporating magnesium-rich foods like seeds, nuts, spinach, whole grains, yogurt, and legumes into their diets may be at higher risk for deficiency. If adding these foods is not feasible due to dietary restrictions or preferences, a supplement may be beneficial.

People with gastrointestinal issues: Gastrointestinal diseases such as celiac disease, Crohn’s disease, Ulcerative colitis, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), may result in malabsorption that can lead to magnesium depletion, so in some cases, magnesium supplementation may be indicated. Additionally, magnesium citrate specifically may help to prevent and alleviate constipation, a common symptom of certain gastrointestinal diseases. Ella Soderholm, RN, MNT, says she primarily uses magnesium "for the beneficial effects it has on gut health, aiding in peristalsis, helping move food through your intestines and prevent[ing] constipation.” 

People who suffer from migraines: While it is still a new area of research, it has been found that people who suffer from migraine headaches may have a lower level of magnesium in their blood and tissues when compared to those who do not suffer from migraines. The American Academy of Neurology and the American Headache Society now provide evidence-based guidelines stating that magnesium therapy may be effective for migraine prevention under the supervision of a healthcare provider. “Magnesium, in particular magnesium oxide, has also been studied in migraine headaches as an effective preventative nutraceutical”, states Ann Ming Yeh, MD.

People who are pregnant or breastfeeding: During pregnancy and lactation, a person's magnesium needs increase to support not only themself, but their growing baby. If a new or pregnant parent is not meeting their magnesium needs from diet and a prenatal vitamin, it may be beneficial to speak to a healthcare provider about adding a magnesium supplement. 

People with Diabetes: Because magnesium plays an important role in the insulin response system, magnesium deficiency can promote further insulin resistance in those with type 2 diabetes. Additionally, uncontrolled or prolonged elevated blood sugar in insulin-resistant and insulin-dependent diabetics can cause increased urinary output, resulting in increased losses of electrolytes, including magnesium. Some studies have shown that supplementing with magnesium may improve diabetes-related health measures; however, more research is needed. Be sure to speak to a healthcare provider to determine if a supplement may benefit you.

Older Adults: As we get older, there are a couple of scenarios that could lead to magnesium deficiency. One is an overall decrease in total dietary intake. If an older adult is unable to consume a varied diet, their risk of magnesium deficiency is greater. Another is that, as we age, our bodies' ability to properly and efficiently absorb all nutrients decreases. And third, there are certain medications that may alter magnesium levels, increasing the risk for magnesium deficiency.

People with a history of alcohol dependence: In alcohol use disorder, vitamin and mineral deficiencies are very common. This is often due to the individual having poor dietary intake in addition to gastrointestinal issues (such as vomiting and diarrhea), increased urination, and potential renal dysfunction. These side effects can cause low levels of vitamins, minerals, and electrolytes, including magnesium.

Who May Not Benefit From a Magnesium Supplement

For healthy adults, the body is able to excrete excess magnesium from food; however, over-supplementation of magnesium can lead to negative side effects, including diarrhea. Additionally, there are certain populations that may be more susceptible to the adverse effects of excess magnesium supplementation, including:

People with impaired kidney function: When someone has impaired kidney function, their ability to properly remove excess nutrients, such as magnesium, can be insufficient, which may lead to magnesium toxicity.

Infants and children: It is important to always work with a healthcare provider when starting any form of vitamin and mineral supplementation, especially in children.

People consuming adequate amounts of magnesium-rich foods and beverages: If you are eating a well-balanced diet, you are likely meeting your total magnesium requirements; therefore, additional supplementation is not necessary.

People taking certain medications: Magnesium supplements have the potential to interact with a number of medications. Such medications include diuretics, Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs), antibiotics, and bisphosphonates. If you are taking any of the above medication types, it is important to discuss any magnesium supplementation with a healthcare provider before starting one to ensure safety.

Best Overall : Pure Encapsulations Magnesium (Glycinate)

Pure Encapsulations Magnesium Glycinate
Pros
  • Well-tolerated form

  • Gluten-free, vegan, non-GMO and free of major allergens

  • Third-party tested and produced in an NSF-registered facility

Cons
  • Some may need up to four capsules

What do buyers say? 93% of 16,000+ Amazon reviewers rated this product 4 stars or above.

Pure Encapsulations Magnesium tops our list because it is from a trusted, third-party-tested brand and contains a preferable form of magnesium. Magnesium glycinate typically has increased tolerability and absorption because the magnesium is bound to the amino acid glycine. This makes magnesium in a chelated form which can get absorbed better in the intestine.

Due to its tolerability, many are able to dose at higher amounts with minimal gastrointestinal distress and other side effects when compared to other forms of magnesium, making magnesium glycinate the preferred type for correcting deficiencies.

Pure Encapsulations tests all raw materials for identity, potency, contaminants, and heavy metals. They utilize third-party laboratories and are NSF-registered as a facility. In addition to the rigorous testing, this magnesium glycinate is certified gluten-free, non-GMO and vegan. Each capsule contains 120 milligrams, providing nearly one-third of the RDA for magnesium for most adults.

Magnesium Type: Magnesium Glycinate | Form: Capsule | Servings Size: 1-4 per day | Magnesium per capsule: 120 mg |Servings per Container: 3 size options (90, 180, 360)

Best Powder: Thorne Research Magnesium Bisglycinate Powder

Thorne Magnesium Bisglycinate Powder

Courtesy of Amazon

Pros
  • NSF Certified for Sport

  • 200 milligrams in a single scoop

  • Well tolerated form

Cons
  • Additional ingredients include citric acid and monk fruit

Magnesium Bisglycinate from Thorne is the magnesium glycinate form we love but in a powder version that you can easily mix with water. As mentioned earlier, magnesium glycinate is a well-tolerated and highly absorbable form of magnesium. The amino acid glycine may enhance the quality of sleep in humans, making this magnesium glycinate powder a great addition to help wind down in a bedtime routine.  

Thorne’s Magnesium Bisglycinate contains 200 milligrams per serving and is free of major allergens, including gluten, dairy, and soy. It is sweetened with monk fruit, a non-nutritive sugar substitute. This product is third-party tested and NSF certified for Sport, making it a great choice for athletes in need of a magnesium supplement.

Magnesium Type: Magnesium Glycinate | Form: Powder | Servings Size: 1 scoop or 3 grams |  Magnesium per serving: 200 mg |Servings per Container: 60

Best Liquid: NutriCology Magnesium Chloride Liquid

Pros
  • ConsumerLab Approved

  • Can add into favorite beverage

Cons
  • Metallic taste

  • Recommended dosing of 2-3 times daily

For those that prefer supplements in a liquid form, try NutriCology’s Magnesium Chloride Liquid with 67 milligrams of easily absorbable magnesium per ½ teaspoon. This product has been ConsumerLab approved and is manufactured in an NSF-registered facility, making it a quality choice.

Be sure to measure your dose carefully and mix it with at least 8 ounces of your favorite beverage. This will ensure proper dilution and minimize the metallic taste.

Magnesium Type: Magnesium Chloride | Form: Liquid | Servings Size: ½ teaspoon |  Magnesium per serving: 66.5 mg | Servings per Container: 94

Best for Constipation : Pure Encapsulations Magnesium (Citrate)

Pure Encapsulations Magnesium (Citrate)

Courtesy of Amazon

Pros
  • Third-party tested and produced in an NSF-registered facility

  • Certified gluten-free, vegan, and non-GMO

  • May help to alleviate constipation

Cons
  • May cause cramping and diarrhea

Magnesium Citrate is another readily available form of magnesium that you will see on store shelves. It is well absorbed and touted for its ability to treat constipation due to its potential laxative effect. Magnesium citrate pulls water from the body into the gastrointestinal tract, which can increase gut motility, creating a laxative effect. Be sure to consult a healthcare provider if you want to use magnesium citrate for chronic constipation, as it can lead to dehydration and an imbalance of key electrolytes.

Our pick for magnesium citrate is from Pure Encapsulations. Pure Encapsulations tests all raw materials for identity, potency, contaminants, and heavy metals utilizing third-party laboratories in addition to being an NSF-registered facility. This magnesium citrate is certified gluten-free, non-GMO, and vegan. 

At 150 milligrams per capsule, Pure Encapsulations Magnesium Citrate can be a good option to treat a magnesium deficiency or constipation when directed by a healthcare professional. Typical side effects of magnesium citrate include cramping, gas, and nausea, so be on the lookout for those and share any issues with a healthcare provider.

Magnesium Type: Magnesium Citrate | Form: Capsule | Servings Size: 1-4 per day |  Magnesium per capsule: 150 mg | Servings per Container: 2 size options (90, 180)

Best for Muscle Support: Thorne Magnesium CitraMate

Pros
  • Blend of magnesium citrate and malate

  • Gluten, diary, and soy-free

Cons
  • May cause gastrointestinal symptoms for some

Thorne combined two highly bioavailable forms of magnesium and placed them into one capsule. This supplement contains 135 milligrams of magnesium per capsule with 55 milligrams of magnesium citrate and 80 milligrams of magnesium malate. Adequate magnesium levels are essential for optimal muscle function, making it an important mineral for muscle support.

While more research is needed, some studies have found that magnesium supplementation may improve performance in both aerobic and anaerobic exercises. Thorne’s Magnesium CitraMate is free of major allergens, including gluten, dairy, and soy.

Magnesium Type: 2 types (citrate and malate) | Form: Capsule | Servings Size: 1-3 daily |  Magnesium per capsule: 135 mg | Servings per Container: 30-90

Best for Cognitive Support: Metagenics Mag L-Threonate

Pros
  • USP Verified and NSF Certified

  • Non-GMO, gluten-free, and vegetarian

Cons
  • Divided dosing is recommended

Metagenics Mag L-Threonate features magnesium L-threonate as Magtein®. Magtein® is a patented combination of magnesium and a compound of vitamin C, threonic acid. This combination provides a form of magnesium that may have a higher ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. While research is limited, some studies suggest a potential benefit of magnesium L-threonate and cognitive health.

Metagenics products are made in a USP verified and NSF registered facility. They test all of their supplements before printing the label and provide full transparency of all testing results on each supplement, providing quality assurance. Additionally, their products are gluten-free, non-GMO, and made without artificial sweeteners.

Magnesium Type: Magnesium L-Threonate | Form: Capsule | Servings Size: 2-3 |  Magnesium per capsule: 49 mg | Servings per Container: 40-60

Best Magnesium Complex: Klaire Labs Mag Complete

Pros
  • Four forms of magnesium in one supplement

  • Free of major allergens

Cons
  • Recommended dosage of 2 capsules twice daily

  • No third-party testing listed

To address differing absorbability and function between various forms of magnesium, Klaire Labs developed Mag Complete, a blend of four different forms of magnesium in a single supplement. Klaire Labs Mag Complete boasts 240 milligrams of elemental magnesium in two capsules. The complex comprises a mix of magnesium aspartate, magnesium malate, magnesium taurate, and magnesium succinate.

The vegetarian capsule is free of common allergens, including dairy, eggs, fish, shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts, wheat, gluten, soy, and yeast. It is also free of artificial colors, flavors, and preservatives. The recommended dosage of four capsules per day provides 480 milligrams, exceeding the RDA of 420 milligrams for men and 320 milligrams for women, respectively, as outlined for healthy adults aged 31 years and older. Be sure to check with a healthcare provider to ensure this high dosage is suitable for your needs.

Magnesium Type: Magnesium succinate, taurinate, malate, and citrate complex | Form: Capsule | Servings Size: 2 capsules |  Magnesium per capsule: 120 mg | Servings per Container: 60

Best Gummy: Trace Minerals Magnesium Gummies Watermelon Flavor

Trace Minerals Watermelon Magnesium Gummies

Amazon

Pros
  • Certified vegan

  • No artificial colors or sweeteners

  • ConsumerLab approved

Cons
  • 1.5 grams of sugar per chew

  • Lower dose per chew

If you are looking for a chewable magnesium supplement, try Trace Minerals Magnesium Gummies. We like that these gummies are ConsumerLab approved, which is one of our top third-party testers. Trace Minerals is gluten-free, and agar is used instead of gelatin making them certified vegan, kosher, and halal. They have some organic ingredients, including organic black carrots that are used for coloring.

One gummy provides 84 milligrams of magnesium citrate, the form of magnesium that can have a laxative effect. These gummies contain inulin which can act as a prebiotic to help support gut health. However, as a fermentable carbohydrate (also called FODMAPs), people with irritable bowel syndrome may be sensitive to foods and supplements that have inulin.

Each gummy has 1.5 grams of sugar. This may be something to keep in mind, especially if you are taking more than one gummy vitamin per day, as this sugar can add up. If you want another flavor besides watermelon, these gummies also come in peach and tangerine flavors.

While gummies can be an appealing supplement option for kids, remember to check with a healthcare professional before giving a child a magnesium gummy (or any other supplement).

Magnesium Type: Magnesium citrate | Form: Gummy | Servings Size: 1 gummy |  Magnesium per gummy: 84 mg | Servings per Container: 120

Final Verdict

Pure Encapsulations Magnesium Glycinate is our best overall pick due to its tolerance and bioavailability, as well as the company's third-party testing and NSF-verified facilities. If you are looking for a magnesium glycinate powder option, consider that the powder boasts 200 mg per serving and is NSF certified for sport.

How We Select Supplemets

Our team works hard to be transparent about why we recommend certain supplements; you can read more about our dietary supplement methodology here

We support supplements that are evidence-based and rooted in science. We value certain product attributes that we find to be associated with the highest quality products. We prioritize products that are third-party tested and certified by one of three independent, third-party certifiers: USP, NSF, or ConsumerLab.

It's important to note that the FDA does not review dietary supplements for safety and effectiveness before they go to market. Our team of experts has created a detailed, science-backed methodology to choose the supplements we recommend.

What to Look For

Third-Party Testing

Supplements that are third-party tested are sent to a lab where they are tested to ensure they contain what they say they contain and are not contaminated with specific high-risk, common contaminants. However, it’s important to note:

  1. Third-party testing does not test to see if a product is effective or safe for everyone, and it does not ensure the supplement will not interact with other supplements or medications.
  2. Not all third-party testing is created equal. It is not uncommon for supplement companies to pay labs for certificates after conducting minimal to no testing. 
  3. The third-party certifications we can trust are: ConsumerLab, NSF, and USP. However, these certifications are difficult to obtain and/or expensive for manufacturers, so many companies choose not to get their products tested by one of these three organizations. 
  4. Sometimes products tested by these three companies are more expensive to try to offset the cost they pay for certification.
  5. Just because a supplement is not tested by one of these three companies, it does not mean it’s a bad product. We recommend doing some research on the reputability of the manufacturer and calling up the manufacturer and their testing lab to determine their protocols and decide if you feel comfortable consuming the supplement.

Form

Shopping for a magnesium supplement can be overwhelming. Not only can a magnesium supplement come in a tablet, capsule, cream, or powder, but that same supplement can come in a variety of different forms. Different magnesium forms include magnesium glycinate, citrate, threonate, malate, and chloride. 

The following are all bioavailable forms of magnesium (meaning our body can absorb and utilize them) that differ slightly in absorption rate and function:

  • Magnesium Glycinate: Typically well tolerated at high doses, magnesium glycinate is a suitable option for treating magnesium deficiencies. The amino acid glycine may enhance the quality of sleep in humans, which may make it a good option for sleep and relaxation. In this form, the magnesium is bound to glycine to form chelated magnesium, which is absorbed better than other forms of magnesium.
  • Magnesium Citrate: Magnesium citrate pulls water from the body into the gastrointestinal tract, which can increase gut motility, creating a laxative effect. This form may good a good option for alleviating constipation.
  • Magnesium L-threonate: Studied for cognitive health due to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier.
  • Magnesium Malate: May be the preferred form of magnesium for muscle function, repair, and support.
  • Magnesium Chloride: A generally well-tolerated, bioavailable option when looking to improve magnesium status.
  • Magnesium Oxide: May be beneficial in the prevention and management of headaches and migraines.

It is important to choose the best form and dosage based on your specific needs. According to Soderholm, she “uses different types of magnesium depending on my client’s needs. Sometimes I may implement it for stress and its calming effect, while other times I use it for constipation and sluggish bowels.”

Chelated Magnesium

You may see the term "chelated magnesium" on supplements. It simply means the magnesium is bound to another substance, like glycine in magnesium glycinate. Chelated magnesium is considered to have a higher absorption rate because it can bypass the usual way magnesium gets absorbed.

Ingredients and Potential Interactions

It is essential to carefully read the ingredient list and nutrition facts panel of a supplement to know which ingredients and how much of each ingredient is included relative to the recommended daily value of that ingredient. Please bring the supplement label to a healthcare provider to review the different ingredients contained in the supplement and any potential interactions between these ingredients and other supplements and medications you are taking.

There are several medications on the market today that can potentially interact with magnesium supplements and therefore affect your overall magnesium status. If you are taking any of the below medications, be sure to speak to a healthcare provider about your magnesium intake.

Diuretics: If you are on chronic treatment with diuretics such as Lasix®, Bumex®, Aquazide H®, Edecrin®, or Aldactone®, be sure to speak to a healthcare provider regarding your magnesium status. Certain diuretics can lead to an increased loss of magnesium, while others may cause you to retain magnesium and not excrete it properly.

Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPI): The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advises healthcare providers to measure the serum magnesium level in any patient on long-term PPI treatment as PPIs have been known to cause low levels of serum magnesium.

Antibiotics: Magnesium has the potential to bind to certain antibiotics, making them work less effectively. If taking antibiotics such as Declomycin®, Cipro®, Levaquin®, or Vibramycin®, it is advised to take the antibiotic at least two hours before or four to six hours after a supplement containing magnesium.

Bisphosphonates to treat osteoporosis: When taking oral bisphosphonates to treat osteoporosis, it is important to separate that dose with any magnesium-containing supplements by at least two hours as the magnesium has the potential to reduce total absorption of the medication.

Magnesium Dosage

The current Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA) for magnesium from both food and supplements for adults are below listed by age and gender.

  • 19-30 years: 400 milligrams (males), 310 milligrams (females), 350 milligrams (pregnancy), 310 milligrams (lactation)
  • 31-50 years: 420 milligrams (males), 320 milligrams (females), 360 milligrams (pregnancy), 320 milligrams (lactation)
  • 51+ years: 420 milligrams (males), 320 milligrams (females)

How Much is Too Much?

In addition to an AI or RDA, as outlined above, the FNB also establishes a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for various vitamins and nutrients. Exceeding the UL of magnesium from supplements can result in gastrointestinal distress, such as diarrhea, nausea, and cramping. Other symptoms of magnesium toxicity can include low blood pressure, vomiting, muscle weakness, irregular heartbeat, and cardiac arrest.

It is important to note that the ULs are only referring to magnesium ingested in the form of a supplement or medication and not from food, which can be effectively processed and excreted by the kidneys. It is high doses provided by supplements and medications that can lead to negative side effects and further health problems.

The following are the established Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for magnesium supplements only (not magnesium from food) based on age for both males and females:

  • Birth to 12 months: None established
  • 1-3 years: 65 milligrams
  • 4-8 years: 110 milligrams
  • 9-18 years: 350 milligrams
  • 19+ years: 350 milligrams

Frequently Asked Questions

  • What foods have magnesium?

    You can achieve your recommended daily amount of magnesium by eating a variety of foods, as magnesium-rich foods are prevalent. As a good rule of thumb, foods that are higher in dietary fiber oftentimes provide a good amount of magnesium. Foods richest in magnesium include legumes, nuts, seeds, green leafy vegetables such as spinach, whole grains, yogurt, and soy milk. Additionally, some breakfast cereals are fortified with magnesium.

  • How does magnesium help with sleep?

    The role magnesium plays in supporting optimal sleep is not fully understood. One possible explanation is that magnesium is a stimulator of GABA, a naturally occurring amino acid that works as a neurotransmitter. GABA is known to decrease activity in the nervous system, which can lead to relaxation.

    Some studies show that adequate magnesium status (from either food or supplementation) may help with sleep quality and duration. While there is some evidence that magnesium supplements specifically may help with sleep, more research is needed.

  • Does magnesium make you poop?

    Magnesium salts can have a laxative effect by drawing water into the gastrointestinal tract, stimulating gastric motility, which may help alleviate constipation. Magnesium citrate is one of the more widely known forms used to treat constipation. Ming Yeh confirms, “in my gastroenterology clinic, I use magnesium citrate most often for constipation.”

  • How long does it take magnesium citrate to work?

    Magnesium citrate works by creating a salt-concentrated environment in your small intestines. As a way to address the high concentration of salt, your body works to pull water into your small intestines, usually resulting in a bowel movement. Most often, dependent upon the magnesium citrate dose, the bowel movement will occur 30 minutes to four hours after ingesting the supplement.

  • Does magnesium lower blood pressure?

    Magnesium, along with other electrolytes, plays an important role in blood pressure regulation. While some research studies have found magnesium supplementation to lower blood pressure, the evidence is inconclusive. In 2022, the FDA approved a health claim stating, “consuming a diet with adequate magnesium may reduce the risk of high blood pressure. However, the evidence is inconsistent and inconclusive.” More research is needed in this area before we can fully understand the effects of magnesium supplementation on the prevention of and treatment of cardiovascular disease, including hypertension.

    To manage and prevent high blood pressure, the American Heart Association recommends consuming a well-balanced, nutrient-dense diet that is low in sodium as well as maintaining a healthy weight, managing stress, engaging in regular physical activity, and reducing high-risk lifestyle behaviors like smoking and drinking.

Why Trust Verywell Fit

Brittany Scanniello RDN runs an integrative nutrition practice in Lafayette Colorado, Eat Simply Nutrition. She is constantly looking for nutraceutical alternatives to assist day-to-day concerns of her clients. With a background as a clinical pediatric gastrointestinal dietitian, magnesium was a supplement she worked with often and continues to do so. She emphasizes the importance of purity, safe dosages, and a quality product above all else when recommending any form of supplementation.

36 Sources
Verywell Fit uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. Magnesium Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. National Institute of Health.

  2.  Institute of Medicine (IOM). Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1997

  3. USDA, Agricultural Research Service, 2019. Usual Nutrient Intake from Food and Beverages, by Gender and Age, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2013-2016 Available http://www.ars.usda.gov/nea/bhnrc/fsrg

  4. Ranade VV, Somberg JC. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of magnesium after administration of magnesium salts to humans. Am J Ther. 2001;8(5):345-357.

  5. Bailey RL, Fulgoni VL 3rd, Keast DR, Dwyer JT. Dietary supplement use is associated with higher intakes of minerals from food sources. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94(5):1376-1381.

  6. Magnesium Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. National Institute of Health.

  7. Yablon LA, Mauskop A. Magnesium in headache. In: Vink R, Nechifor M, eds. Magnesium in the Central Nervous System. University of Adelaide Press; 2011.

  8. Holland S, Silberstein SD, Freitag F, et al. Evidence-based guideline update: NSAIDs and other complementary treatments for episodic migraine prevention in adults: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Headache Society. Neurology. 2012;78(17):1346-1353.

  9. Kostov K. Effects of Magnesium Deficiency on Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes: Focusing on the Processes of Insulin Secretion and Signaling. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(6):1351.

  10. Chaudhary DP, Sharma R, Bansal DD. Implications of magnesium deficiency in type 2 diabetes: a review. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2010;134(2):119-129. doi:10.1007/s12011-009-8465-z

  11. ELDerawi WA, Naser IA, Taleb MH, Abutair AS. The Effects of Oral Magnesium Supplementation on Glycemic Response among Type 2 Diabetes Patients. Nutrients. 2018 Dec 26;11(1):44. doi: 10.3390/nu11010044. PMID: 30587761; PMCID: PMC6356710.

  12.  Barbagallo M, Belvedere M, Dominguez LJ. Magnesium homeostasis and aging. Magnes Res. 2009;22(4):235-246. doi:10.1684/mrh.2009.0187

  13.  Rivlin RS. Magnesium deficiency and alcohol intake: mechanisms, clinical significance and possible relation to cancer development (a review). J Am Coll Nutr. 1994;13(5):416-423. doi:10.1080/07315724.1994.10718430

  14. Musso CG. Magnesium metabolism in health and disease. Int Urol Nephrol. 2009;41(2):357-362. doi:10.1007/s11255-009-9548-7

  15. Siegel JD, Palma JD. Medical Treatment of Constipation. Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 2005 May; 18(2): 76–80. doi: 10.1055/s-2005-870887

  16. Zhang Y, Xun P, Wang R, Mao L, He K. Can Magnesium Enhance Exercise Performance? Nutrients. 2017; 9(9):946. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9090946

  17. Wang J, Liu Y, Zhou LJ, et al. Magnesium L-threonate prevents and restores memory deficits associated with neuropathic pain by inhibition of TNF-α. Pain Physician. 2013;16(5):E563-E575.

  18. Liu G, Weinger JG, Lu ZL, Xue F, Sadeghpour S. Efficacy and Safety of MMFS-01, a Synapse Density Enhancer, for Treating Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. J Alzheimers Dis. 2016;49(4):971-990. doi:10.3233/JAD-150538

  19. Institute of Medicine (IOM). Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1997

  20. Schuchardt JP, Hahn A. Intestinal absorption and factors influencing bioavailability of magnesium-an updateCurr Nutr Food Sci. 2017;13(4):260-278.

  21. Razak MA, Begum PS, Viswanath B, Rajagopal S. Multifarious Beneficial Effect of Nonessential Amino Acid, Glycine: A Review [published correction appears in Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2022 Feb 23;2022:9857645]. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:1716701. doi:10.1155/2017/1716701

  22. Uberti F, Morsanuto V, Ruga S, Galla R, Farghali M, Notte F, Bozzo C, Magnani C, Nardone A, Molinari C. Study of Magnesium Formulations on Intestinal Cells to Influence Myometrium Cell RelaxationNutrients. 2020; 12(2):573.

  23. Siegel JD, Palma JD. Medical Treatment of Constipation. Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 2005 May; 18(2): 76–80. doi: 10.1055/s-2005-870887

  24.  Liu G, Weinger JG, Lu ZL, Xue F, Sadeghpour S. Efficacy and Safety of MMFS-01, a Synapse Density Enhancer, for Treating Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. J Alzheimers Dis. 2016;49(4):971-990. doi:10.3233/JAD-150538

  25. Yablon LA, Mauskop A. Magnesium in headache. In: Vink R, Nechifor M, eds. Magnesium in the Central Nervous System. University of Adelaide Press; 2011.

  26. FDA Drug Safety Communication: Low magnesium levels can be associated with long-term use of Proton Pump Inhibitor drugs (PPIs). FDA.

  27. Dunn CJ, Goa KL. Risedronate: a review of its pharmacological properties and clinical use in resorptive bone disease. Drugs. 2001;61(5):685-712. doi:10.2165/00003495-200161050-00013

  28. Magnesium Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. National Institute of Health.

  29. Abbasi B, Kimiagar M, Sadeghniiat K, Shirazi MM, Hedayati M, Rashidkhani B. The effect of magnesium supplementation on primary insomnia in elderly: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trialJ Res Med Sci. 2012;17(12):1161-1169.

  30. Zhang Y, Chen C, Lu L, et al. Association of Magnesium Intake With Sleep Duration and Sleep Quality: Findings From the CARDIA Study. Curr Dev Nutr. 2021;5(Suppl 2):1109. Published 2021 Jun 7. doi:10.1093/cdn/nzab053_102

  31.  Chan V, Lo K. Efficacy of dietary supplements on improving sleep quality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Postgrad Med J. 2022;98(1158):285-293. doi:10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-139319

  32. ScriptSave WellRx. Citrate of Magnesia Monographs. Accessed 6.22.22.

  33. Iqbal S, Klammer N, Ekmekcioglu C. The Effect of Electrolytes on Blood Pressure: A Brief Summary of Meta-Analyses. Nutrients. 2019;11(6):1362. Published 2019 Jun 17. doi:10.3390/nu11061362

  34. Zhang X, Li Y, Del Gobbo LC, et al. Effects of Magnesium Supplementation on Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trials. Hypertension. 2016;68(2):324-333. doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.116.07664

  35. FDA Letter in Response to Petition for Qualified Health Claim for Magnesium and Reduced Risk of High Blood Pressure. FDA: Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

  36. American Heart Association - Changes You Can Make to Manage High Blood Pressure.

Additional Reading