6 Best Electrolyte Drinks of 2022 According to a Dietitian

Skratch Labs Sport Hydration Mix has impressive ingredients and nutrition

We independently research, test, review, and recommend the best products. Healthcare professionals review articles for medical accuracy. Learn more about our process. If you buy something through our links, we may earn a commission.

You’ve probably heard many different opinions about electrolyte drinks. If you eat a balanced diet and workout for shorter durations, an electrolyte drink likely isn't necessary—you should be able to recover with plain water and food. However, if you engage in high intensity exercise of any duration or exercise for over an hour, especially in hot conditions, you might consider using an electrolyte drink to help you rehydrate more quickly.

When deciding which electrolyte drink is best for you, consider the ingredients, type of electrolytes, dose, and budget that best suits your needs. “Pay extra attention to the amount of sodium. Sodium enhances fluid retention, keeping you more hydrated compared to drinking plain water,” says Kristy Baumann, RD, a dietitian who specializes in working with runners.

Electrolyte drinks sometimes also include carbohydrates in the form of sugar to help replenish glycogen stores, your body’s stored form of carbohydrates that are used up when you exercise. Carbohydrates can also further help your body hold onto water. Plus, “The flavor encourages you to drink more while exercising which can help reduce risk of dehydration,” says Baumann. 

Verywell Fit Approved Electrolyte Drinks

  • Best Overall: Skratch Labs Sport Hydration Mix not only contains electrolytes in the amounts you lose in sweat, but it also replenishes your carbohydrates and is naturally flavored with lemon and lime oils and juices.
  • Best On the Go: Liquid I.V. Hydration Multiplier packs in sodium, carbohydrates, vitamin C, B3, B5, B6, and B12 into each convenient single serve packet.

Always speak with a healthcare professional before adding a supplement to your routine to ensure that the supplement is appropriate for your individual needs and which dosage to take.

Are Electrolyte Drinks Beneficial?

While electrolyte drinks aren’t typically necessary for everyday use, there are some situations in which they can be extremely helpful for preventing dehydration.

If you have lost too many electrolytes and attempt to rehydrate with plain water, dehydration is still possible. Dehydration can increase the stress on your heart, make exercise more difficult, and impair your ability to regulate your body temperature. When athletes lose two percent of their body weight from water loss, it can result in reduced aerobic performance and cognitive decline. In some cases, drinking too much plain water can lead to hyponatremia, a dangerous condition in which blood sodium levels drop too low.

People who may benefit from electrolyte drinks to prevent dehydration include:

  • Athletes engaging in prolonged strenuous exercise: Athletes engaging in strenuous exercise for over an hour, or who are including intense intervals, may benefit from using electrolyte drinks to prevent dehydration. Drinks that contain electrolytes and small amounts of carbohydrates may improve the rate at which your cells take in sodium and water, allowing you to rehydrate more quickly. These drinks also usually taste better, which encourages you to drink more.
  • Those exercising in warm weather: Electrolyte drinks can be particularly useful if you are exercising for long periods in warm weather.
  • Those experiencing altitude changes: If you travel to a place with high altitude and you are not accustomed to it, it can result in an electrolyte imbalance. You might consider including electrolyte drinks along with water and carbohydrates.
  • People with fluid loss from diarrhea or vomiting: We also lose fluids and electrolytes via feces and vomiting. If you are experiencing excess fluid loss due to an illness, you may benefit from an electrolyte drink along with adequate water and food. It is best to consult with your healthcare provider to determine if an electrolyte drink is necessary.

Who May Not Benefit from Electrolyte Supplements

  • Recreational athletes: If you exercise at low to moderate intensity (if you can comfortably talk or sing while exercising) for less than an hour you likely do not need electrolyte drinks. You probably will not sweat out enough electrolytes to require quick and immediate replenishment. By focusing on recovering with water and food that contains salt as well as the other electrolytes lost in sweat, you will be able to replace what you lost.
  • Sedentary individuals: If you are not exercising and have not lost large amounts of fluids for another reason such as an illness, you likely do not need to use an electrolyte drink. You can focus instead on staying hydrated with regular water. Plus, some electrolyte drinks contain added sugars that can be beneficial to athletes but are likely not needed if you follow a balanced diet.
  • Children who are not high intensity athletes: Electrolyte drinks are usually unnecessary for children engaged in routine play. Most research on electrolyte drinks has been conducted in adults, and children should generally turn to water as a first means of hydration. However, electrolyte drinks may benefit children who are competitive athletes or who are at risk of dehydration due to illness.

Best Overall: Skratch Labs Sport Hydration Drink Mix

Skratch Labs Sport Hydration Drink Mix

Amazon

Pros
  • Contains electrolytes lost in sweat

  • Contains carbohydrates to aid in rehydration

  • Flavored using natural ingredients

Cons
  • Must be prepared in advance

Who else recommends it? Runner's World also picked Skratch Labs Sport Hydration Drink Mix.

What do buyers say? 93% of 4,400+ Amazon reviewers rated this product 4 stars or above.

We like that Skratch Labs Sports Hydration mix matches the electrolytes lost in sweat, with 380 milligrams of sodium, 39 milligrams of potassium, 44 milligrams of calcium, and 39 milligrams of magnesium per scoop. As an added bonus, Skratch also contains 21 grams of carbohydrates. These added sugars can help give you energy during long endurance events and also help your body hold onto fluids which can help you rehydrate more quickly. Consuming too much sugar at once while exercising can lead to digestive issues, so we like that Skratch contains moderate amounts.

A top consideration for many athletes is taste—many electrolyte drinks are overly sweet. However, a good tasting drink will encourage you to drink more. Skratch hydration mix does not use any artificial flavorings, instead using fruit to flavor their drink mix, which provides a subtly sweet taste. Skratch comes in a variety of flavors you can choose from, such as lemon lime, strawberry lemonade, and summer peach. 

Given that this is a powder, it has to be mixed with water in advance. If you plan to use it while exercising, it may require some planning ahead. This product is also certified gluten free, kosher, non-GMO, and dairy free.

Price at time of publication: $22 ($1.10 per serving)

Form: Powder | Electrolytes Included: Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium | Sodium: 380 mg/svg | Carbohydrates: 21 g/svg | Recommended Use: 1 scoop in 12-16 oz fluid per hour of exercise

Best Single Serve: Liquid I.V. Hydration Multiplier Electrolyte Drink Mix

Liquid IV Hydration Multiplier Electrolyte Drink Mix

Amazon

Pros
  • Contains vitamin C, B3, B5, B6, and B12

  • Single serve packets for easy use

  • No artificial ingredients

Cons
  • Does not contain calcium or magnesium

If you find yourself on the go, Liquid I.V. may come in handy with its single serve packets. Liquid I.V. is formulated using a technology called Cellular Transport Technology (CTT), based on the World Health Organization’s guidelines for formulating rehydration drinks, which was developed in the 1960s and 1970s to help correct for extreme dehydration and is a standard still used today. This guideline suggests a precise ratio of sodium, glucose, and water that will support rehydration for those at risk of severe dehydration.

One serving of this powdered mix is higher in sodium, with 500 milligrams, along with 11 grams of carbohydrates. This level of sodium might be beneficial if you are exercising intensely and are a salty sweater—white streaks on your clothes or face after exercising are a good indication. However, if you are not a salty sweater or at risk of dehydration due to illness or intense exercise, this option may be too high in sodium for you.

Liquid I.V. also contains vitamin C, B3, B5, B6, and B12. Vitamin C is important for tissue repair, and the B vitamins are involved in energy production, so it is important to get adequate amounts if you are an avid exerciser. This product does not contain calcium and magnesium, although you can obtain these electrolytes via food such as dairy products and leafy greens.

Liquid I.V. prides itself on being non-GMO and free from gluten, soy, and dairy. As an added bonus, for each purchase, Liquid I.V. donates a serving of Liquid I.V. to someone in need.

Price at time of publication: $23 ($1.44 per serving)

Form: Powder | Electrolytes Included: Sodium, potassium, phosphorous | Sodium: 500 mg | Carbohydrates: 11 g | Recommended Use: Empty 1 packet into 16 oz water

Best Caffeinated: Tailwind Nutrition Caffeinated Endurance Fuel

Tailwind Nutrition Caffeinated Endurance Fuel

Tailwind

Pros
  • Contains caffeine for an extra boost

  • Contains electrolytes lost in sweat

  • Contains carbohydrates to aid in rehydration

Cons
  • Must be prepared in advance

If you are a caffeine lover and an athlete, it may actually be a good thing. Research shows moderate doses of caffeine can benefit endurance performance. Using Tailwind while exercising can serve a triple purpose of providing you with calories, electrolytes, and caffeine.

One scoop of Tailwind Endurance Fuel contains 35 milligrams of caffeine along with 25 grams of sugar per serving. If you are engaging in endurance activity that is over one hour, you may need to consume carbohydrates while exercising. This can be especially beneficial if you struggle to eat regular food or do not like to use other products such as gels or chews while exercising.

Tailwind Endurance Fuel contains the electrolytes lost in sweat, with 303 milligrams of sodium, 88 milligrams of potassium, 26 milligrams of calcium and 14 milligrams of magnesium per serving. We also like that it does not contain dyes or preservatives and uses fruit to flavor this powder. It is also free from soy and dairy and is non-GMO.

Price at time of publication: $40 ($0.80 per serving)

Form: Powder | Electrolytes Included: Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium | Sodium: 303 mg/svg | Carbohydrates: 25 g/svg | Recommended Use: 2-3 scoops in 24 oz fluid per hour of exercise for long endurance workouts or 1-2 scoops for shorter workouts

Best Tablet: Nuun Sport Electrolyte Drink Tablets

Nuun Sport Electrolyte Drink Tablets

Amazon

Pros
  • Dissolvable tablet

  • Contains electrolytes lost in sweat

  • No artificial sweeteners

  • Inexpensive per serving

Cons
  • Sweetened with stevia instead of sugar

We know that not everybody is looking for both electrolytes and carbohydrates from electrolyte drinks, so we wanted to include a lower sugar option. Nuun Sport Electrolyte Drink Tablets contain 1 gram of sugar, 300 milligrams of sodium, plus potassium, calcium, and magnesium. However, if you are engaging in strenuous exercise in hot conditions, adding carbohydrates to liquid can help you rehydrate more quickly. If you prefer to have a lower sugar electrolyte drink, be sure to refuel with food as well.

Nuun tablets dissolve in water, producing a fizzy drink. While this may be enjoyable after exercising, note that it might prove difficult to drink mid-exercise. These tablets are certified non-GMO, vegan, kosher, and are free from dairy and gluten. They are sweetened with stevia, a natural calorie-free sweetener with a distinct flavor that may or may not suit your taste preferences.

Price at time of publication: $22 ($0.55 per serving)

Form: Tablet | Electrolytes Included: Sodium, chloride, calcium, potassium, magnesium | Sodium: 300 mg/svg | Carbohydrates: 4 g/svg | Recommended Use: Place 1 tablet in 16 oz of water

Best for Long Endurance Events: Maurten Drink Mix 160

Maurten Drink Mix 160

The Feed

Pros
  • High carbohydrate content

  • Single serve packet

  • Part of Informed Sport Program

Cons
  • One flavor

  • Does not contain potassium, magnesium, or calcium

  • Expensive per serving

If you engage in long endurance events such as marathons, ultramarathons, and triathlons, you likely require higher amounts of carbohydrates. If you are competing in warm weather, you will likely also need higher amounts of electrolytes. Maurten Drink Mix 160 contains 39 grams of carbohydrates and 400 milligrams of sodium per serving.

Maurten uses a patented Hydrogel technology that allows you to consume higher amounts of carbohydrates without leading to stomach upset. It does not contain potassium, magnesium, or calcium, so be sure you obtain these electrolytes through food. Maurten also makes an even higher carbohydrate drink mix, Maurten Drink Mix 360, with 79 grams of carbohydrates and 200 grams of sodium per serving.

Maurten Drink Mix does not contain artificial additives. It does, however, only come in one flavor, which is mildly sweet, so you might consider trying out a single serve option first. We like that each batch of Maurten Drink Mix is tested by Informed Sport, a global testing program for sports and nutrition supplements, to ensure it does not contain substances banned by sports organizations.

Price at time of publication: $2.50 for single packet ($2.50 per serving)

Form: Powder | Electrolytes Included: Sodium | Sodium: 400 mg/svg | Carbohydrates: 39 g /svg | Recommended Use: Mix 1 packet with 500 ml water

Best for Illness-Related Fluid Loss: Pedialyte Electrolyte Solution Unflavored

pedialyte-unflavored

Courtesy of Target

Pros
  • Approved for use by children

  • Contains zinc for added immune support

  • No artificial sweeteners

  • Ready-to-drink

Cons
  • Flavored versions contain dyes 

  • Expensive

If you or your child are experiencing fluid loss such as vomiting or diarrhea from illness, Pedialyte may be a good electrolyte drink choice. Pedialyte is a liquid drink that contains 370 milligrams of sodium, 440 milligrams of chloride, 280 milligrams of potassium, and 10 grams of carbohydrates per serving to help you rehydrate and replace lost electrolytes. It also contains 2.8 milligrams of zinc per serving, which has been linked to reduced duration and severity of diarrhea.

While Pedialyte may be a beneficial electrolyte drink if you are experiencing fluid losses due to diarrhea or vomiting, you should consult with a healthcare provider to determine if it is appropriate for you. Unlike many electrolyte drinks, pedialyte is approved for children to use. However, flavored versions contain added dyes, and this may also be a more expensive choice.

Price at time of publication: $59 ($2.46 per serving)

Form: Liquid | Electrolytes Included: Sodium, chloride, potassium | Sodium: 370 mg | Carbohydrates: 10 g/svg | Recommended Use: For ages 1 and up, small frequent sips every 15 minutes, increasing serving size as tolerated for as long as diarrhea persists.

Electrolyte Drinks That May Not Provide Adequate Hydration

Coconut Water

While coconut water is an excellent source of potassium and is fine for regular daily hydration, it is naturally low in sodium. If you are engaging in prolonged exercise or working out in the heat, we recommend choosing an electrolyte drink that contains sodium to help you replace what you lost and to rehydrate more quickly.

Gatorade Zero

Gatorade Zero contains the electrolytes sodium and potassium. It does not, however, contain any sugar, which can help you rehydrate and refuel more quickly during and after strenuous and prolonged exercise. It also contains artificial sweeteners and dyes.

"Regular gatorade, on the other hand, is an effective, affordable rehydrating electrolyte drink. However gatorade is made using artificial flavors and colors, which you may prefer not to consume," says Autumn Rauchwerk, a Registered Dietitian and athlete with her masters degree in nutrition and exercise physiology.

"Gatorade has a high amount of added sugar, which is beneficial for rehydration in highly active individuals exercising intensely or in hot conditions and for those who are sick and at risk of dehydration. However, it is not necessary for casual athletes or people who are not active. Ultimately, it is up to you to weigh the risks and benefits and determine which electrolyte drink is the best choice for you," says Rauchwerk.

LMNT

LMNT is an electrolyte powder meant to be mixed into water. It does not contain any added sugar and has 1,000 milligrams of sodium per serving. While we want to choose drinks with some added sodium after strenuous exercise, this high level may not be suitable for everyone.

Ultima Replenisher

Ultima Replenisher is a powdered drink mix. While it contains potassium, calcium, and magnesium, it only contains 55 milligrams of sodium per serving and does not contain any carbohydrates. We therefore would not recommend using this drink mix to refuel and rehydrate from strenuous efforts.

Essentia Electrolyte Water

Essentia Electrolyte Water is marketed as an alkaline water infused with electrolytes. There is not enough research backing the benefits of alkaline water over regular water. Since Essentia contains only trace amounts of electrolytes, it would not be enough to replenish what you lost while exercising. You might stick to regular water hydration to save money.

Vitamin Water

Vitamin water is advertised as water with added electrolytes. The electrolytes contained however are often not those lost in sweat. Of note, it does not contain sodium to aid in recovery from prolonged exercise.

Watermelon Water

Watermelon water is marketed as being packed with electrolytes to help with workout recovery. However, it contains very little sodium, and the ingredients are mainly watermelon and water. You might consider sticking to plain water to save money.

How We Select Supplements

Our team works hard to be transparent about why we recommend certain supplements; you can read more about our dietary supplement methodology here

We support supplements that are evidence-based and rooted in science. We value certain product attributes that we find to be associated with the highest quality products. We prioritize products that are third-party tested and certified by one of three independent, third party certifiers: USP, NSF, or ConsumerLab.

It's important to note that the FDA does not review dietary supplements for safety and effectiveness before they go to market. Our team of experts has created a detailed, science-backed methodology to choose the supplements we recommend.

What to Look for in an Electrolyte Drink

Third Party Testing

Supplements that are third-party tested are sent to a lab where they are tested to ensure they contain what they say they contain and are not contaminated with specific high-risk, common contaminants. However, it’s important to note:

  1. Third party testing does not test to see if a product is effective or safe for everyone, and it does not ensure the supplement will not interact with other supplements or medications.
  2. Not all third-party testing is created equal. It is not uncommon for supplement companies to pay labs for certificates after conducting minimal to no testing. 
  3. The third party certifications we can trust are: ConsumerLabs, NSF, and USP. However, these certifications are difficult to obtain and/or expensive, so many companies choose not to get their products tested by one of these three organizations. 
  4. Sometimes products tested by these three companies are more expensive to try to offset the cost they pay for certification.
  5. Just because a supplement is not tested by one of these three companies, it does not mean it’s a bad product. We recommend doing some research on the reputability of the manufacturer, and calling up the manufacturer and their testing lab to determine their protocols and decide if you feel comfortable consuming the supplement.

Sports supplements, including electrolyte drinks, can be contaminated with ingredients prohibited by sports organizations. If you are a competitive athlete you should always choose products that are third party tested.

Form

Electrolyte drinks are available as prepared liquid drinks, powders, and tablets that dissolve in liquid. Consider what type of exercise you will be engaging in to determine the best form for you.

Ingredients & Potential Interactions

It is essential to carefully read the ingredient list and nutrition facts panel of a supplement to know which ingredients and how much of each ingredient is included, relative to the recommended daily value of that ingredient. Please bring the supplement label to your healthcare provider to review the different ingredients contained in the supplement and any potential interactions between these ingredients and other supplements and medications you are taking.

Electrolyte drinks vary in their ingredients. Most contain water, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium, in varying amounts. Some contain additional ingredients including vitamins, such as the B vitamins, vitamin C, or added flavorings. If you are sensitive to caffeine, be aware that some electrolyte drinks also contain caffeine.

The most important electrolyte to look out for in a rehydration drink is sodium. "If you’re sweating in the heat for an extended period of time, exercising for multiple hours, or running at high altitude, consider choosing an electrolyte beverage with a higher electrolyte profile and more sodium," says Baumann.

Some electrolyte drinks contain added sugars. These sugars are meant to provide athletes engaged in prolonged exercise with a source of energy and can also help athletes stay hydrated. If you are performing exercise for shorter durations or at lower intensities, you should be able to adequately recover by drinking water and eating a balanced meal.

Certain electrolyte drinks also contain artificial dyes. While the FDA has approved use of color additives, some limited research has linked food dyes to cancer.

Electrolyte Drink Dosage

There is no Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for electrolyte drinks, but there are established recommendations for the minerals they contain. The recommended amount differs by age, sex, and overall health, and will also differ for people who are pregnant or lactating. 

According to the Institute of Medicine, if you are performing prolonged physical activity in hot weather, you should include drinks with 20-30 meq/L (440-690 mg/L) sodium, 2-5 meq/L (78-95 mg/L) potassium, and five to ten percent carbohydrate.

Many electrolyte drinks also contain small amounts calcium and magnesium, though the amounts lost in sweat are very low. Being sure you're meeting your daily needs of these minerals from food can help prevent imbalances. The Adequate Intake of potassium per day for adult men is 2400 milligrams and for adult women is 2600 milligrams. The RDA for calcium is 1,000 milligrams for adult men and women.

How Much is Too Much?

Electrolyte drinks are generally well tolerated. However, if you do consume many electrolyte drinks daily, this can lead to an electrolyte excess. High sodium intakes over time can increase your risk of developing high blood pressure and heart disease. While there are risks associated with over-consuming potassium, magnesium, and calcium, the amounts contained in electrolyte drinks are unlikely to pose any harm.

Since some electrolyte drinks contain added carbohydrates, overconsumption can also contribute to cavities and excess sugar intake.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • What drinks have electrolytes?

    Many drinks contain electrolytes in varying amounts. This includes natural liquids such as coconut water, fruit juices, and milk as well as prepared drinks like sports drinks. However, some of these drinks, such as coconut water, are low in sodium and may therefore not be appropriate for replacing electrolytes after strenuous and prolonged exercise.

  • Can you drink too many electrolytes?

    Drinking too many electrolytes can result in high levels of sodium in particular, which over time can increase risk of certain diseases such as high blood pressure.

  • How do I make my own electrolyte drink?

    You can make your own electrolyte drink by combining water or coconut water with some salt along with flavorings you like such as lemon juice or a splash of fruit juice. Try this electrolyte drink: Mix 2 cups water, 1 ½ cups coconut water, ¼ cup pomegranate juice, ¼ cup lemon juice, and ¼ teaspoon salt.

  • Can I drink electrolyte water every day?

    "Most unflavored electrolyte waters include a disclaimer that the electrolytes are added for flavor, since there are not enough electrolytes included to make any difference at all in your body," says Autumn Rauchwerk, a registered dietitian with a master's degree in nutrition and exercise physiology.

    "These waters are likely not harmful and are as good as plain water to drink daily if you want to spend the money on them, but they are not contributing at all to your electrolyte intake. Be sure to read the nutrition facts panels on electrolyte waters to see if they contain significant amounts of any electrolytes before using them to rehydrate," says Rauchwerk.

    If you are an athlete engaging in prolonged strenuous exercise or if you are exercising in hot conditions, you may benefit from electrolyte drinks, not electrolyte water.

  • How can I get electrolytes without sports drinks?

    Electrolytes are present in many of the foods we eat daily. Bananas and potatoes are excellent sources of potassium, dairy products and dark leafy greens like kale or Swiss chard contain calcium, legumes and nuts have magnesium, and you can obtain sodium by salting your food. Eating a balanced and varied diet will ensure you obtain enough electrolytes.

Why Trust Verywell Fit

Tamar Kane, MS, RD, is a Registered Dietitian and marathon runner. Tamar has her masters degree in nutrition and exercise physiology from Teachers College Columbia University and specializes in working with plant-based athletes often interested in incorporating electrolyte drinks. Her goal is to help people understand how to properly fuel their bodies (and supplement if needed!) to optimize performance and wellbeing.

19 Sources
Verywell Fit uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. American College of Sports Medicine position stand: Exercise and fluid replacement. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2007; 39(2): 377-390.

  2. McDermott BP, Anderson SA, Armstrong LE, Casa DJ, Cheuvront SN, Cooper L, Kenney WL et al. National Athletic Trainers’ Association position statement: Fluid replacement for the physically active. Journal of Athletic Training. 2017;52(9): 877-895. doi:10.4085/1062-6050-52.9.02

  3. Von Duvillard SPV, Braun WA, Markofski M, Beneke R, Leithauser R. Fluids and hydration in prolonged endurance performance. Nutrition. 2004; 20(7-8): 651-6.

  4. Kenefick RW, Cheuvront SN. Hydration for recreational sport and physical activity. Nutrition Reviews, 2012; 70 (Suppl. 2): S137-S142. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2012.00523.x

  5. Exercise and fluid replacement. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2007; 39(2): 377-390. doi:10.1249/mss.0b013e31802ca597

  6. Sigh Jr R. Fluid balance and exercise performance. Malays J Nutr. 9(1):53-74.

  7. Khan DA, Aslam M, Khan ZU. Changes in plasma electrolytes during aclimatization at high altitude. 46(6)128-31.

  8. Manatsathit S, Dupont HL, Farthing M, et al. Guideline for the management of acute diarrhea in adults. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2002;17 Suppl:S54-S71. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1746.17.s1.11.x

  9. Pound CM, Blair B. Energy and sports drinks in children and adolescents. Pediatrics & Child Health. 2017; 22(7): 406-410. doi:10.1093/pch/pxx132

  10. Best Electrolyte Tablets for Runners. Runner's World. https://www.runnersworld.com/gear/a33437569/best-electrolyte-tablets-for-runners/

  11. Prado de Oliveira E, Burini RC. Carbohydrate-dependent, exercise-induced gastrointestinal distress. Nutrients. 6(10):4191-4199.

  12. Bhattacharya SK. History of development of oral rehydration therapyIndian J Public Health. 1994;38(2):39-43.

  13. Southward K, Rutherfurd-Markwick KJ, Ali A. The effect of acute caffeine ingestion on endurance performance: A systematic review and meta analysis. Sports Med. 2018;48(8):1913-1928. doi:10.1007/s40279-018-0939-8

  14. Bajait C, Thawani V. Role of zinc in pediatric diarrhea. Indian J Pharmacol. 2011;43(3):232-235.

  15. National Institutes of Health. Dietary supplements for exercise and performance: Fact sheet for health professionals.

  16. National Institutes of Health: Potassium - Factsheet for health professionals.

  17. National Institutes of Health: Calcium - Factsheet for health professionals.

  18. USDA. 2020-2025 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  19. National Institutes of Health: Magnesium - Factsheet for health professionals.