The 10 Best B12 Supplements for Vegans and Vegetarians for 2023

Nature Made Sublingual Vitamin B12 1000 mcg is USP verified and affordable

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The Best B12 Supplements for Vegans and Vegetarians, According to a Dietitian

VWT / Alli Waataja

Vitamin B12 is a nutrient that is important for your blood cells, nervous system, and DNA synthesis. It is naturally found primarily in animal foods such as fish, meat, eggs, poultry, and dairy. If you follow a vegan or vegetarian diet, you are at greater risk of deficiency, and we recommend considering a B12 supplement as no vegan foods are naturally a significant source of B12. “Many vegan foods are fortified with B-12, including nutritional yeast and some plant milks, but supplementation makes it easier,” says Anna Titcomb, MS, RD, CSSD

Some common signs of B12 deficiency to look for include fatigue, heart palpitations, pale skin, or tingling in the hands and feet. While it can take years for a deficiency to form, if you are starting a vegan diet, it can help to begin supplementing early. There are various types of B12 you might see in supplements or multivitamins, though you'll most commonly see B12 in the form of cyanocobalamin.

When looking for a B12 supplement, consider whether you want a supplement with only B12 or a multivitamin that includes other nutrients important for vegans and vegetarians such as vitamin D, omega-3 fats, iron, calcium, iodine, zinc, and selenium. You will also want to consider a dose appropriate for your needs and whether you prefer supplements in pill, spray, or sublingual (under the tongue) form.

Verywell Fit Approved B12 Supplements for Vegans and Vegetarians

Always speak with a healthcare professional before adding a supplement to your routine, to ensure that the supplement is appropriate for your individual needs and which dosage to take.

Are B12 Supplements Beneficial for Vegans and Vegetarians?

B12 supplements are often important for vegans and vegetarians since vitamin B12 exists naturally only in animal foods in reliable amounts. While some foods such as fortified cereals and fortified nutritional yeast contain B12, you may have a challenging time getting enough if you are relying only on those foods.

“All vegans should have a reliable source of B12 whether that comes from a supplement or fortified foods like non-dairy milk, tofu, and nutritional yeast. Fortified foods and supplements are the only reliable source of vitamin B12 in a vegan diet,” says Rhyan Geiger, RDN, owner of Phoenix Vegan Dietitian. 

While most vegans and many vegetarians will benefit from B12 supplements, the following groups, whether or not they are vegetarian or vegan, may benefit from B12 supplements:

  • People who are pregnant: The amount of vitamin B12 needed by pregnant people is 2.6 mcg per day, and 2.8 mcg while breastfeeding. This is higher than the amounts needed typically. If you are vegan or vegetarian, your baby may not receive enough B12, which can result in neural tube defects, developmental delays, and anemia.
  • Older adults: Many older adults don’t produce enough hydrochloric acid, which is needed to absorb vitamin B12 in food. Vitamin B12 deficiencies are therefore common in older adults, who may benefit from supplements.
  • People with gastrointestinal disorders: Individuals with certain disorders such as atrophic gastritis, celiac disease, Crohn’s disease, or those who have had intestinal surgery may struggle to absorb enough vitamin B12.
  • People who have had intestinal surgery: If you have had stomach or intestinal surgery, you may not make enough hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor, which are needed for B12 absorption.
  • People taking certain medications: There are particular medications that can increase your risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. This includes the drug metformin, taken for prediabetes and diabetes, as well as proton pump inhibitors.

Who May Not Benefit From a Vegan B12 Supplement

If you follow a strictly vegan diet, you will need to supplement with vitamin B12 or to make sure you’re consuming enough from fortified foods. Vitamin B12 typically does not cause any harm, even at high doses, since the body does not store excess amounts. There are, however, certain situations in which you may want to exercise caution before using a B12 supplement:

  • Those getting enough vitamin B12 from food: If you follow a vegetarian diet and consume foods such as eggs and dairy, you may want to check with a healthcare provider to determine your B12 status. If you are getting enough vitamin B12 from foods, you may not require a B12 supplement. 
  • People taking certain medications: Vitamin B12 supplements can interact with certain medications. This includes gastric acid inhibitors such as omeprazole, lansoprazole cimetidine, or ranitidine. The drug metformin may also reduce vitamin B12 absorption. If you are using one of these medications, speak with a healthcare provider.

Best Overall

Nature Made Sublingual B-12 1,000 mcg

Nature's Made Sublingual B-12 1000 mcg

Amazon

Pros
  • USP Verified

  • Sublingual form

  • Affordable

Cons
  • Contains artificial sweeteners

Nature Made Sublingual Vitamin B12 is our top pick for a vitamin B12 supplement. This supplement is USP verified, meaning you can be sure that the product contains the ingredients listed on the label in the amounts listed. We also like that this supplement is sublingual, meaning it dissolves under your tongue. While research shows all forms of vitamin B12 can be well absorbed, a dissolvable lozenge may be beneficial if you’re not a fan of swallowing pills.

Nature Made Sublingual Vitamin B12 contains 1,000 mcg of B12 as cyanocobalamin. Nature Made products are among the most affordable options, and their sublingual B12 is no exception. This low price point can be especially useful if you need to take vitamin B12 for long periods of time. 

While these lozenges are sugar free, they do contain mannitol, a sugar alcohol, and sucralose, an artificial sweetener. Some people find these additives lead to digestive upset, but at low doses (as they are in these lozenges), they are less likely to be cause for concern.

Price at time of publication: $9 ($0.18 per serving)

Form: Lozenge | B12 type: Cyanocobalamin | Dose: 1000 mcg | Recommended Use: One lozenge daily with a meal | Third-party Certified: Yes | Servings per container: 50 | Other Nutrients: None

Best in a Multivitamin

Future Kind Vegan Essential Multivitamin

Future Kind Vegan Essential Multivitamin

Amazon

  • Contains vitamin B12, D, and Omega-3s

  • Vegan company

  • Small, citrus-flavored softgels

  • Two softgels daily

Future Kind Essential for Vegans is a multivitamin that provides you with the essential nutrients you may be lacking. As a vegan or vegetarian, you will also need to be aware of your intakes of other vitamins and minerals naturally low in plant foods. You might prefer to take a multivitamin that provides you with the nutrients you need in one go, rather than having to take many separate pills.

Future Kind is a vegan supplement brand that is third party tested. Their Essential for Vegans multivitamin contains 400 mcg of vitamin B12, 50 mcg of vitamin D3, and 650 mg of omega-3 fats. The vitamin D is from lichen, a vegan source, while the omega-3 is from algal oil rather than fish. Vitamin D and omega-3 fats are often derived from animals, so these nutrients are typically low for those on vegan diets.

The recommended dose is 2 softgels daily. These softgels are citrus flavored and very small, which makes for easier swallowing.

Price at time of publication: $30 ($1 per serving)

Form: Softgel | B12 type: Cyanocobalamin and adenosylcobalamin | Dose: 400 mcg | Recommended Use: Two softgels daily with a glass of water | Third-party Certified: Yes | Servings per container: 30 | Other Nutrients: Vitamin D, Omega-3 fats

Best Liquid Drops

Vitacost Liquid Vitamin B12

Vitacost Liquid Vitamin B12

Vitacost

Pros
  • Adjustable dose

  • Affordable

Cons
  • Not suitable for those with a soy allergy

Vitacost Liquid Vitamin B12 is a third party tested supplement that’s easy to take. Liquid supplements can be a convenient addition to your routine since they can be taken directly by mouth or added to a drink of choice. 

We also like that, since this supplement is in liquid form, the dose is easily adjustable. Whether you want a daily addition of vitamin B12 to maintain your stores or need a higher dose to correct for a deficiency or due to absorption issues, a liquid supplement can be useful.

One serving of Vitacost Liquid Vitamin B12 is 16 drops, which contains 1,000 mcg of vitamin B12 as cyanocobalamin. One drop would provide you with 65 mcg, so you can adjust as needed or share with family members. The low price point makes this an affordable option that will add mere cents to your daily expenses. 

You should be aware that this supplement contains soy, so it is not suitable if you have a soy allergy.

Price at time of publication: $7 ($0.10 per serving)

Form: Liquid | B12 type: Cyanocobalamin | Dose: 1000 mcg | Recommended Use: Take 16 drops daily by mouth | Third-party Certified: Yes | Servings per container: 74 | Other Nutrients: None

Best Budget Tablet

Nature Made Vitamin B12 Time Release

Nature Made Vitamin B12 Time Release

Amazon

Pros
  • Affordable

  • One tablet

  • No artificial flavors or preservatives

Cons
  • Dose may be high for some

You might notice that we have several Nature Made products on our list. That’s because Nature Made is a trusted company that produces quality supplements at affordable price points. We like that their slow-release vitamin B12 supplements are cost effective and require only one tablet daily.

Each Nature Made Vitamin B12 time release tablet contains 1,000 mcg of B12 as cyanocobalamin. Many supplements contain quantities of B12 that are higher than the recommended amounts because we only absorb a small percentage. At higher doses, we absorb smaller percentages. For doses of 1000 mcg, our digestive system absorbs around 1.3 percent, or 13 mcg. Our bodies also do not store excess amounts of B12, so high doses are generally considered safe.

These supplements do not contain any artificial flavors or preservatives. As an added bonus, they contain 120 mcg of calcium, or 10 percent of the daily value. This can be beneficial as calcium is a mineral many vegans need to make sure they’re getting enough of, as the calcium found naturally in vegetables may be less easily absorbed than the calcium found in dairy.

Price at time of publication: $11 ($0.14 per serving)

Form: Tablet | B12 type: Cyanocobalamin | Dose: 1000 mcg | Recommended Use: One tablet daily with water and a meal | Third-party Certified: No | Servings per container: 75 | Other Nutrients: Calcium

Best Gummies

Mary Ruth’s Vitamin D3 + B12 Gummies Strawberry

Mary Ruth’s Vitamin D3 + B12 Gummies Strawberry

Amazon

Pros
  • Free from both major allergens & artificial sweeteners

  • Contains vitamin D

  • Affordable

  • Vegan company

Cons
  • Contain a very small amount of added sugar

  • Expensive

Many gummies are made with gelatin, which isn’t suitable for vegans and vegetarians. Mary Ruth’s is an entirely vegan supplement brand—each supplement is vegan, gluten free, and non-GMO. Their products are also third party tested for potential contaminants. 

Mary Ruth’s Vitamin D3 + B12 Gummies contain 250 mcg of vitamin B12 as methylcobalamin. They also contain 1,000 IU or 25 mcg of vitamin D3 from lectin, a vegan source. This can be helpful since vegans and vegetarians are also at increased risk of deficiencies in vitamin D.

We like that Mary Ruth’s gummies don’t contain any artificial sweeteners. These gummies do contain a very small amount of added sugar—1 gram per gummy. The recommended dose is one strawberry or raspberry flavored gummy per day.

Price at time of publication: $30 ($0.50 per serving)

Form: Gummy | B12 type: Methylcobalamin | Dose: 250 mcg | Recommended Use: One gummy per day for ages 2 and over | Third-party Certified: Yes | Servings per container: 60 | Other Nutrients: Vitamin D

Best B-Complex

Thorne Research B-Complex #6

Thorne B-Complex #6

Amazon

Pros
  • NSF Certified for Sport

  • No artificial colors or flavors

Cons
  • Expensive

B-complex supplements contain most or all of the B vitamins in one pill. A well-chosen B-complex vitamin can help you ensure that in addition to B12, you get enough of the other B vitamins as well. Thorne is a trusted company in the world of supplements. They do extensive testing and support research to ensure high quality products. 

Thorne’s B-complex capsules will provide you with 100 mcg of vitamin B12 as methylcobalamin. They also contain vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, and choline. 

Thorne B-Complex is also NSF Certified for Sport. This means it has been tested to make sure it does not contain substances banned by major athletic organizations, making this a great option if you’re a vegan athlete. 

Price at time of publication: $21 ($0.35 per serving)

Form: Capsule | B12 type: Methylcobalamin | Dose: 100 mcg | Recommended Use: One capsule | Third-party Certified: Yes | Servings per container: 60 | Other Nutrients: Vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, choline

Best Spray

Garden of Life mykind Organic Whole Food B-12 for Metabolism and Energy, Raspberry

Garden of Life B12 Vitamin - mykind Organic Whole Food B-12 for Metabolism and Energy, Raspberry

Amazon

Pros
  • ConsumerLab.com approved

  • Raspberry flavored

  • Affordable

Cons
  • Long ingredient list

If you’re not a fan of pills and tablets, you might want to consider Vitamin B12 in spray form. Since vegans will need to supplement with B12 throughout their life, a spray can be a convenient and easy addition to your routine.

Garden of Life mykind Organic Whole Food B12 contains 500 mcg of vitamin B12 in each raspberry flavored spray. This amounts to 20833 percent of the Daily Value of vitamin B12. While this sounds quite high, only a small percentage is absorbed by our bodies. The National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements says that we absorb only about 2 percent of a 500 mcg dose. Using this spray four times per week should help many vegetarians and vegans meet their needs.

Garden of Life makes supplements with whole food ingredients. This includes an organic food blend as well as sweetening from stevia, apple juice, and mandarin peel, which may or may not suit your preferences. 

As an added bonus, mykind seeks third party verification of many of their products through ConsumerLab.com’s voluntary certification program. In a 2022 Vitamin B Supplements review, ConsumerLab.com tested and approved mykind Organics Whole Food B12 and verified that it contains what it says it contains without potentially harmful contaminants.

Price at time of publication: $17 ($0.12 per serving)

Form: Spray | B12 type: Methylcobalamin | Dose: 500 mcg | Recommended Use: Spray in mouth | Third-party Certified: Yes | Servings per container: 140 | Other Nutrients: Certified Organic food blend

Best Tablets

HUM B12 Turbo

HUM B12 Turbo

Amazon

Pros
  • No artificial colors or preservatives

  • Contains a very small amount of calcium

  • Free from major allergens

Cons
  • Needs to be taken with food

  • Expensive

If you prefer the ease of tablets and are looking for an extra little boost of calcium, HUM B12 Turbo can help meet your needs. These vegan tablets provide 1,000 mcg of vitamin B12 as methylcobalamin when you take one tablet daily with food. These tablets are also free from artificial colors, preservatives, flavors, and the major allergens.

Calcium is another nutrient vegans should be aware of. Vegan sources of calcium include green leafy vegetables, nuts, seeds, and soy, but many vegans may not get enough of this important mineral from food alone. In addition to B12, HUM B12 Turbo tablets contain 30 mg of calcium. This provides you with 2 percent of the daily value, so it should not be your only source of calcium.

HUM states that their products are third party tested for purity and quality.

Price at time of publication: $15 ($0.50 per serving)

Form: Tablet | B12 type: Methylcobalamin | Dose: 1000 mcg | Recommended Use: 1 tablet daily with food | Third-party Certified: Yes | Servings per container: 30 | Other Nutrients: Calcium

Best Chewable

Jarrow Formulas Methyl B12 1000 mcg Chewable Tablets, Lemon

Jarrow Formulas Methyl B12 1000 mcg Chewable Tablets, Lemon

Amazon

Pros
  • Chewable form for easy use

  • Free from major allergens

Cons
  • Contains a sugar alcohol

Jarrow Formulas makes a B12 supplement in chewable tablet/lozenge form, which can either be chewed or dissolved under the tongue. This can be another great option if you would rather not swallow pills.

These lozenges contain 1,000 mcg of methylcobalamin each. They are lemon flavored and also contain xylitol, a sugar alcohol, for added sweetness. Though the small amount in these supplements will likely not pose an issue, some people find that sugar alcohols do not sit well with them.

These supplements are free from wheat, soybeans, dairy, eggs, fish, shellfish, peanuts, and tree nuts. Jarrow states that their products are third party tested by ISO and USDA accredited labs.

If you would prefer a higher dose, Jarrow also makes versions with 2,500 mcg and 5,000 mcg.

Price at time of publication: $13 ($0.13 per serving)

Form: Lozenge | B12 type: Methylcobalamin | Dose: 1000 mcg | Recommended Use: Dissolve in mouth or chew 1 tablet per day | Third-party Certified: Yes | Servings per container: 100 | Other Nutrients: None

Best Lozenge

NOW Foods Methyl B-12 1,000mcg Lozenges

NOW Foods Methyl B-12 1,000mcg Lozenges

Amazon

Pros
  • Easily dissolved lozenge form

  • Affordable

Cons
  • Contains a sugar alcohol

NOW Supplements Methyl B-12 1,000 mcg come in lozenge form that can be chewed or dissolves under your tongue. Each lozenge provides you with 1,000 mcg of B12 as methylcobalamin. They are suitable for vegans and vegetarians and are certified kosher.

Geiger says, “I recommend using the NOW Supplements Methyl B-12 1,000 mcg. Their products are affordable and tested thoroughly for quality so you really are getting the best bang for your buck.” We can certainly get behind a supplement that is affordable and third party tested.

One downside to this product is that it contains sorbitol, a sugar alcohol, though it will likely not cause GI side effects in the low dose included in this supplement.

Price at time of publication: $8 ($0.08 per serving)

Form: Lozenge | B12 type: Methylcobalamin | Dose: 1000 mcg | Recommended Use: Take 1 lozenge 1 to 2 times per day | Third-party Certified: Yes | Servings per container: 100 | Other Nutrients: None

How We Select Supplements

Our team works hard to be transparent about why we recommend certain supplements; you can read more about our dietary supplement methodology here

We support supplements that are evidence-based and rooted in science. We value certain product attributes that we find to be associated with the highest quality products.

What to Look For in B12 Supplements for Vegans and Vegetarians

Third-Party Testing

Supplements that are third-party tested are sent to a lab where they are tested to ensure they contain what they say they contain and are not contaminated with specific high-risk, common contaminants. However, it’s important to note:

  • Third party testing does not test to see if a product is effective or safe for everyone, and it does not ensure the supplement will not interact with other supplements or medications.
  • Not all third-party testing is created equal. It is not uncommon for supplement companies to pay labs for certificates after conducting minimal to no testing. 
  • The third party certifications we can trust are: ConsumerLab.com, NSF, and USP. However, these certifications are difficult to obtain and/or expensive for manufacturers, so many companies choose not to get their products tested by one of these three organizations. 
  • Sometimes products tested by these three companies are more expensive to try to offset the cost they pay for certification.
  • Just because a supplement is not tested by one of these three companies, it does not mean it’s a bad product. We recommend doing some research on the reputability of the manufacturer, and calling up the manufacturer and their testing lab to determine their protocols and decide if you feel comfortable consuming the supplement.

Form

Vitamin B12 is sold in various forms including as capsules, sublingual tablets or lozenges (tablets that dissolve under your tongue), liquid drops, chewables, and gummies. 

The chemical form of B12 is either methylcobalamin, adenosylcobalamin, hydroxocobalamin, or cyanocobalamin. Methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin are the active forms of B12, while hydroxocobalamin and cyanocobalamin become active once they are converted to methylcobalamin or adenosylcobalamin. 

The most common form of B12 in supplements is cyanocobalamin. Titcomb says, “Cyanocobalamin is a great option as it's a more stable compound and typically cheaper as well.” 

Research does not demonstrate that there is a difference in absorption for different supplement forms of B12, so you can choose whichever form you prefer.

Ingredients & Potential Interactions

It is essential to carefully read the ingredient list and nutrition facts panel of a supplement to know which ingredients and how much of each ingredient is included, relative to the recommended daily value of that ingredient. Please bring the supplement label to a healthcare provider to review the different ingredients contained in the supplement and any potential interactions between these ingredients and other supplements and medications you are taking.

B12 supplements can interact or interfere with certain medications. This includes gastric acid inhibitors taken to treat digestive issues such as gastroesophageal reflux disease or peptic ulcer disease. These drugs, including omeprazole, lansoprazole, cimetidine, and ranitidine, can slow the release of hydrochloric acid into the stomach, which can interfere with B12 absorption. Metformin, a drug used to treat prediabetes and diabetes, can also reduce absorption of vitamin B12.

When choosing a vegan B12 supplement, be sure to read labels carefully. Geiger says to check the ingredients, as products such as capsules may contain gelatin, which is not suitable for vegans. If you’re using a multivitamin and want to ensure it is vegan, you should also check that the vitamin D and omega-3 come from plant sources. 

Dosage

According to the National Institutes of Health, the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for Vitamin B12 are as follows:

  • Birth to 6 months: Males and females: 0.4 mcg
  • 7-12 months: Males and females: 0.5 mcg
  • 1-3 years: Males and females: 0.9 mcg
  • 4-8 years: Males and females: 1.2 mcg
  • 9-13 years: Males and females: 1.8 mcg
  • 14-18 years: Males and females: 2.4 mcg, Pregnancy: 2.6 mcg, Lactating: 2.8 mcg
  • 19+ years: Males and females: 2.4 mcg, Pregnancy: 2.6 mcg, Lactating: 2.8 mcg

Vitamin B12 in supplements is typically sold in higher doses than the RDA because our bodies only absorb small amounts from supplements.

How Much is Too Much?

There is no established Tolerable Upper Intake Level for vitamin B12 since it has low potential for toxicity. Vitamin B12 is generally considered safe even at high doses, because our bodies excrete excess B12 through urine.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • What’s the best way for vegans and vegetarians to get B12?

    The best way for vegans and vegetarians to get B12 is through supplements or food that is fortified with B12. Since it can be challenging for vegans to reach their needs through food alone, a supplement will likely be needed.

  • What type of B12 should vegans take?

    B12 is sold as either methylcobalamin, adenosylcobalamin, hydroxocobalamin, or cyanocobalamin. The most common form of B12 in supplements is cyanocobalamin, but the others are absorbed just as well. Geiger says the best type of vitamin B12 is the kind you will take. There are a variety of B12 supplements to choose from including sublingual, lozenges, liquid, and even powder forms. You should use a dose and form that suits your needs.

  • How much B12 should a vegan take per day?

    Geiger says vegans are recommended to take 2,000 mcg of B12 per week. Usually, this is split up into two doses of 1,000 mcg. Titcomb says that adults over 65 may need higher amounts at 1,000 mcg daily. If you are unsure about the correct dosage for your needs, we recommend speaking with a healthcare provider.

  • What are the symptoms of low B12?

    Symptoms of low B12 include fatigue or weakness, heart palpitations, pale skin, weight loss, loss of appetite, and infertility. You may also experience numbness or tingling in the hands and feet, problems with balance, depression, confusion, memory difficulties, dementia, and a sore mouth or tongue.
    The good news is that many of the effects of B12 deficiency can be reversed, especially in early stages of deficiency. A healthcare provider can help you get a blood test to check your levels, and if needed, can recommend a higher dose to help reverse deficiency.

  • Why do vegans not get enough B12?

    Vegans do not get enough vitamin B12 because B12 is found mainly in animal products such as beef, poultry, fish, and dairy products. While some foods such as fortified cereals and nutritional yeast have vitamin B12 added to them, it is not enough to meet your daily needs.

11 Sources
Verywell Fit uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. Vitamin b12: Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. National Institute of Health Office of Dietary Supplements.

  2. Rizzo G, Laganà AS, Rapisarda AMC, et al. Vitamin B12 among vegetarians: status, assessment and supplementationNutrients. 2016;8(12):767. doi:10.3390/nu8120767

  3. Vitamin b12: Fact Sheet for Consumers. National Institute of Health Office of dietary supplements.

  4. Miller JW. Proton pump inhibitors, h2-receptor antagonists, metformin, and vitamin b-12 deficiency: clinical implicationsAdv Nutr. 2018;9(4):511S-518S. doi:10.1093/advances/nmy023

  5. Sharabi A, Cohen E, Sulkes J, Garty M. Replacement therapy for vitamin B12 deficiency: comparison between the sublingual and oral routeBr J Clin Pharmacol. 2003;56(6):635-638. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2125.2003.01907.x

  6. Vitamin b12: Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. National Institute of Health Office of dietary supplements.

  7. Melse-Boonstra A. Bioavailability of micronutrients from nutrient-dense whole foods: zooming in on dairy, vegetables, and fruitsFront Nutr. 2020;7:101. doi:10.3389/fnut.2020.00101

  8. Vitamin b12: Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements.

  9. Vitamin b12: Fact Sheet for Consumers. National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements.

  10. Bakaloudi DR, Halloran A, Rippin HL, et al. Intake and adequacy of the vegan diet. A systematic review of the evidenceClin Nutr. 2021;40(5):3503-3521. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2020.11.035

  11. Vitamin b12: Fact Sheet for Consumers. National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements.