All About the Abdominal Muscles

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Verywell / Ben Goldstein

The abdominal muscles comprise part of your core, including your back and glute muscles. They work together to provide stability and mobility for your spine and support your pelvis. Strong abdominals help ward off back pain and injury.

To make the most of your abdominal training, knowing which exercises work best and which are ineffective is wise. Some abdominal devices or movements may even increase your risk of injury. It's also worth knowing where each abdominal muscle is, what they do, and how they can be exercised with the least risk of injury.

Rectus Abdominis

The most well-known and prominent abdominal muscle is the rectus abdominis. It is the long, flat muscle that extends vertically between the pubis and the fifth, sixth, and seventh ribs. The rectus abdominis connects to the xiphoid process, a bony landmark at the bottom of the sternum.

A strong, tendinous sheath called the "linea alba," or white line divides the rectus abdominis down the middle. Three more horizontal tendinous sheaths give the muscle its familiar "six-pack" look in very fit athletes.

The rectus abdominis helps flex the spinal column, narrowing the space between the pelvis and the ribs. It is also active during side bending motions and helps stabilize the trunk during movements involving the extremities and head.

Exercises that primarily target the rectus abdominus include hanging leg raises, stability ball crunches, and cable crunches.

External Obliques

The next group of muscles that make up the abdominals is the external oblique muscles. This pair of muscles is located on each side of the rectus abdominis.

The muscle fibers of the external obliques run diagonally downward and inward from the lower ribs to the pelvis, forming the letter V. You can locate them by putting your hands in your coat pockets.

The external obliques originate at the fifth to twelfth ribs and insert into the iliac crest, the inguinal ligament, and the linea alba of the rectus abdominis. They allow flexion of the spine, rotation of the torso, sideways bending, and compression of the abdomen.

Exercises that target the obliques include bicycle crunches and opposing leg-to-arm mountain climbers.

Internal Obliques

The internal oblique muscles are a pair of deep muscles that are just below the external obliques. The internal and external obliques are at right angles to each other.

The internal obliques attach from the lower three ribs to the linea alba and from the inguinal ligament to the iliac crest and then to the lower back (thoracolumbar fascia). The lower muscle fibers of the internal obliques run nearly horizontally.

Along with the external obliques, the internal obliques are involved in flexing the spinal column, sideways bending, trunk rotation, and compressing the abdomen.

Because of their unique alignment (at right angles to each other), the internal and external obliques are referred to as opposite-side rotators. Both do side bending to the same side, but the external oblique on the left rotates the trunk/spine to the right, whereas the internal oblique on the left rotates the trunk/spine to the left.

Exercises that target the internal obliques include twisting hanging knee raises, pallof presses, side planks, and Turkish get-ups.

Transversus Abdominis

The deepest layer of abdominal muscles is called the "transversus abdominis" or TVA. The TVA muscle wraps around the torso from front to back and from the ribs to the pelvis. Its muscle fibers run horizontally, similar to a corset or a weight belt.

This muscle doesn't move the spine or pelvis, but it does help with respiration and breathing and helps to provide support for the spine, preventing low back pain. Specifically, it helps facilitate the forceful expiration of air from the lungs while also stabilizing the spine and supporting the abdominal wall.

To engage your transversus abdominis, "focus on exhaling and at the very end of the exhalation, contract the pelvic floor muscles and TVA," says Kristin McGee, Peloton yoga and meditation Instructor. "When you fill-up with breath, try and expand the back and sides of the waist," McGee adds, "and not put too much pressure on the front of the abs."

Exercises that target the transverse abdominis include stomach vacuums, bird dogs, dead bugs, hollow body holds, planks, wipers, and the Pilates one-hundred.

Hip Flexors

The hip flexors are a group of muscles that bring the legs and trunk together in a flexion movement. They are not technically abdominal muscles, but they do facilitate movements during several ab exercises. The muscles that make up the primary hip flexors are:

  • Psoas major
  • Illiacus
  • Rectus femoris
  • Psoas minor

Some ab exercises work the hip flexors more than the abs. One example is the full sit-up exercise, especially when the feet are held down. This movement primarily involves the hip flexors and may cause the lower back to arch. This could increase the risk of back pain, particularly if you have weak abdominal muscles. Therefore, the full sit-up is not recommended for beginners.

Another example of an ab exercise that works the hip flexors is any leg-raising exercise done in a supine (lying face up) position. Again, this movement works the hip flexors far more than the abs and shouldn't be done until you have good abdominal strength.

The hip flexors are strong, powerful muscles that can overtake the abdominal muscles in some ab exercises. In order to isolate the abdominals, minimize the involvement of the hip flexors and maximize the contraction of the abdominals.

Design An Effective Ab Workout

Now that you have a basic understanding of what the abdominal muscles are and how they work, you can design workouts that really target these muscles. Select five to 10 exercises that combine these four elements. Perform 10 reps of each exercise, then move on to the next. Change your exercise routine every two to three weeks.

Use Good Form for Abdominal Exercises

  • Contract your abs and pull your belly button in toward your spine with each contraction.
  • Move slowly and with control.
  • Support your head when you need to, but don't pull on your head or pull your chin to your chest.

Spinal Flexion

Spinal flexion is the act of bending at the spine, such as when you bend over or bend upward during a crunch. While spinal flexion exercises can work your abdominals, they aren't appropriate for everyone since they can lead to strain and pain. Below are examples of exercises using spinal flexion.


Core rotation exercises help build power in your core and hip muscles. They mimic natural movements you make throughout the day and help you to train in the transverse plane, which is often overlooked. Below are exercises that use core rotation.


Extension exercises work your lower back and core muscles as you arch your back or extend your leg, or both. These exercises are excellent for reducing low back pain and increasing stability. Below are examples of extension exercises.


Stability exercises are those you hold in isometric contractions. They can help increase core stability and muscular endurance, especially if you are new to core training. To progress with your core training or to build muscle size, you will need to include additional weighted core exercises. Below are examples of core stability exercises.

Isometric exercises (such as the plank and the bird-dog) that focus on limiting trunk movement are great abdominal exercises. Another option is the pallof press, an anti-rotation movement that strengthens the core and increases stability.

To perform the movement, use a band or cable that is fixed to a steady surface at torso height. Stand far enough away from the band so that when you hold the band in front of your sternum, there is tension. When you are facing forward, the band will be affixed on your side.

Extend your arms (and the band) fully in front of your chest, then bring them back in close to your chest. Resist giving in to the side pull and rotating your torso toward the band's anchor.

7 Sources
Verywell Fit uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
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By Elizabeth Quinn, MS
Elizabeth Quinn is an exercise physiologist, sports medicine writer, and fitness consultant for corporate wellness and rehabilitation clinics.